### Table of Contents

# Glossary of Mathematical Terms and definitions (Sam Curran)

## Number

· Whole number- A number which is not a decimal or fraction i.e. 1, 2, 3 etc.

· Positive number- A number which is greater than 0.

· Negative number- A number that is less than 0.

· Integer- A positive or negative whole number.

· Square number- When you square root this number, you get a whole number. Examples of square numbers include: 1,4,9,16,25 and 36.

· Square root- The square root of a number is the number that has been multiplied by itself twice to get that number. E.g. The square root of 9 is 3. As 3×3=9.

· Cube number- When you cube root this number you get a whole number. Examples of cube numbers include: 1,8,27,64 and 125.

· Cube root- The cube root of a number is the number that has been multiplied by itself three times to get that number. E.g. The cube root of 8 is 2. As 2x2x2 =8.

· Odd number- A number whose final digit ends with 1,3,5,7 or 9. An odd number never divides by 2.

· Even number- A number whose final digit ends with 2,4,6,8 or 0. An even number always divides by 2.

· Prime number- A number which only divides by itself or 1. E.g. 31 is a prime number as it only divides by 1 and 31 (itself). 2 is the only even prime number.

· Numerator- This is the number on top of a fraction.

· Denominator- This is the number on the bottom of a fraction.

· Top-heavy/improper fraction- This is a fraction where the numerator is bigger than the denominator.

· Mixed number- This is an integer and fraction together. E.g. 3 1/5 is a mixed number.

## Algebra

· Algebra- An area of maths involving letters and numbers.

· Term- This is something which has a letter, number and possibly power in it. E.g. 5×2

· Expression- This is made up of terms which are added, subtracted, divided or multiplied together.

· Gather like terms- This is the process of combining terms (by adding etc.) which have the same number, letter and sometimes power.

· Equation- An expression you must find the answer to. An equation normally equals something and you have to find what number the letter is worth. E.g. 3x =9 x=9/3 x=3

· Power/Index- This is where something is raised to a certain number/power and it is multiplied by itself according to what value that power is. E.g. 2 to the power of 4 is multiplied by itself 4 times.

· Squared- This is where a number is raised to the power of 2. E.g. 2×2 = 4

· Cubed- This is where a number is raised to the power of 3. E.g. 3×3 = 9

· Indice- This is a term that has a number and power in. It also may have a letter in as well.

· Rule- A mathematical law that can be applied to a certain question. E.g. A rule of maths is that when you multiply powers together you add them. So a7 x a6 = a7 + 6 = a13

· Index notation- This is where something is written in terms of a power and a number. So for example the index notation of 9 is 32.

## Shape

· Shape- This is something with a set number of sides and angles.

· Polygon- This is just a term for classifying shapes.

· Regular polygon- A polygon where all the sides and angles are equal.

· Irregular polygon- A polygon where not all the sides and angles are equal.

· Parallel sides- Sides which go in the same direction but never meet.

· Angle- This is the value of the point where 2 sides of a shape meet. Angles are measured in degrees.

· Acute angle- This is an angle less than 90 degrees. An acute angle is between 0 and 90 degrees.

· Right angle- This is an angle that is 90 degrees.

· Obtuse angle- This is an angle that is between 90 and 180 degrees.

· Reflex angle- This is an angle that is more than 180 degrees but less than 360 degrees.

· Adjacent angles- Angles that are next to each other.

· Congruent shapes- Shapes which are identical in length of sides and size of angles.

· Triangle- A 3 sided shape. The angles in this shape add up to 360 degrees.

· Scalene triangle- This is where none of the sides and angles are equal in a triangle.

· Isosceles triangle- This is where 2 sides and angles are equal in a triangle.

· Equilateral triangle- This is where all 3 sides and angles are equal in a triangle. Each angle is 60 degrees in an equilateral triangle.

· Quadrilateral- Any 4 sided shape. The angles in this shape add up to 360 degrees.

· Square- A 4 sided shape where all the angles and sides are equal. All the angles in a square equal 90 degrees (a right angle).

· Rectangle- A 4 sided shape which has 2 pairs of equal sides and angles.

· Parallelogram- A 4 sided shape with 2 pairs of parallel sides. The opposite angles of parallelogram are equal. The adjacent angles of a parallelogram add up to 180 degrees.

· Pentagon- A 5 sided shape. Its angles add up to 540 degrees. If it’s a regular pentagon all its sides and angles will be equal. Each angle in a regular pentagon equals 108 degrees.

· Hexagon- A 6 sided shape. Its angles add up to 720 degrees. If it’s a regular hexagon all its sides and angles will be equal. Each angle in a regular pentagon equals 120 degrees.

· Octagon- A 8 sided shape. Its angles add up to 1080 degrees. If it’s a regular octagon all its sides and angles will be equal. Each angle in a regular octagon equals.

· Area- This is the total amount of space enclosed by the sides in a shape. Area is measured in units (cm etc.) 2 .

· Perimeter- This is the total distance around the outside of a shape. This is just measured in whatever units the sides of the shape are measured in.

· Circle- This is a shape that just consists of one side and angle. The angle in a circle is 360 degrees. Every point on the circle is equidistant (the same distance) form the centre of the circle.

· Circumference- This is the perimeter of a circle.

· Diameter- This is a line running through the centre of the circle which joins 2 points on the circumference of a circle together. Every diameter drawn on a circle is equal.

· Pi (π)- This is the ratio of the circumference to its diameter. Pi= Circumference ÷ Diameter. Pi roughly equals 3.142 and is used to calculate the area and circumference of a circle.

· Radius- This is a line drawn from the centre of a circle to a point on the circumference. Every radius in a circle is equal. The radius of a circle is half the length of the diameter.

· Sector- This is the area formed by 2 radii going to the centre of a circle.

· Major sector- The largest sector in the circle.

· Minor sector- The smallest sector in a circle.

· Arc- This is the part of the circumference which the sector has as a side.

· Chord- A line that joins up 2 points on the circumference. Unlike the diameter though it does not go through the centre of a circle.

· Segment- This is a section of a circle formed by a chord.

· Major segment- The biggest segment in a circle.

· Minor segment- The smallest segment in a circle.

· Tangent- A line drawn which touches the circle at exactly one point.

## Data

· Statistics- The study of data and graphs.

· Measures of spread- There are 4 measures of spread: mean, median, mode and range. They are called measures of spread because they show how spread out a set of numbers is.

· Mean- This is the average. The formula for mean= total of all numbers ÷ how many numbers there are.

· Median- This is the middle number. You calculate the median by lining up all the numbers up and crossing off until you get to the middle one. If you cross off all the numbers and get to 2 numbers the average of these 2 numbers is the median.

· Mode- This is the most common number.

· Range- This is the total amount the data set covers. Range= Biggest number – Smallest number.