# Scientific Notation Notes

- Scientific Notation
- Measurement
- Two parts
- Number
- Unit

- We work with really large and small numbers

- Scientific Notation
- Coefficient (6.022) followed by a base (10) followed by an exponent (23)
- If the exponent is positive then the number is greater than one
- If it is negative then it is a decimal
- The coefficient must be between 1 and 9, inclusive
- Sometimes in science we use spaces instead of commas
- After every third number

- Accuracy vs Precision
- Accuracy is how close a measurement is to its true value
- Precision is the ability to repeat a measurement
- In lab, she wants us to be precise
- If you are precise then that means it is most likely the fault of the instrument
- Being precise is extremely important in lab
- Accepted value is the experimentally proven true value
- The boiling point of water is 100 C
- The reference value
- The book value
- It is consistent and it is always true
- Experimental value is the value that you get in lab
- That is when a person runs a lab and they get a value for something
- Percent Error is the
^{1)}x 100% (A-E)/(A)

- Percent Error Problem
- Lisa weighed a copper cylinder to be 46.83g. The correct mass of the cylidner is 48.32 g. Calculate the percent error.
- The percent error in this case would be roughly 3.08%

- Significant Figures
- Reporting a measurement
- Significant figures
- When we take a measurement, we always take it to the precision of the instrument plus one more
- For a ruler, we would use it to the second decimal place
- With the thermometers in the lab, we would have to measure to the first decimal place
- Significant Figures include all of the certain digits in the measurement plus the one that is uncertain.
- Rules for significant figures
- The answer can only be as accurate as the device that took the measurement
- All nonzero digits are significant
- Captive Zeros are significant (0s that have numbers around it (it is in the middle))
- 20.55 would be 4 and 200.05 would be 5
- Leading 0s are not significant
- 0.00253 would be 3 and 0.0305 would be 3
- Trailing 0s are significant when there is a decimal point
- 200.00 would have 5, 40.50 would have 4, 3400 would have 2, and 0.050600 would have 5
- Sometimes you would have to use scientific notation to get the correct number of significant figures
- Exact numbers have an infinite amount of significant figures
- conversion factors
- constants
- number of desks in the row would be exactly 5 and so it would have in infinite amount of significant figures

^{1)}|accepted value - experimental value|)/(accepted value