Scientific Method and Chemistry Notes

  • Chemistry
    • Areas of study
      • organic chemistry
        • things that contain carbon
        • you should drink water every day
      • inorganic chemistry
        • do not contain carbon
        • ammonia is NH3
        • Salt is NaCl
      • biochemistry
        • is the study of living processes
        • this could overlap into the field of organic chemistry
        • digestion, cellular respiration, etc.
        • they could involve organic compounds and some things that are inorganic
        • analytical chemistry
        • studying the compositor of matter
        • blood
        • plasma
        • platelets
        • red blood cells
        • white blood cells
        • overlaps into biochemistry
      • physical chemistry
        • the behavior of substance - the study of the behavior, the mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that happens when matter changes
        • how do we make something stretchy?
        • how does aspirin work?
        • etc.
    • There is usually overlap between these fields
  • Scientific method
    • Observation - state the problem
      • could be background research, could be searching on the web, etc. What type of problem you want to solve and state the problem
    • Hypothesis
      • cause and effect
      • educated guess
      • a proposed explanation
      • you are going to be making a prediction on what is going to happen
      • It needs to be in the format of an If…then…statement
      • It is only going to be 1 sentence long
    • Experimentation
      • Plan or procedure to test a hypothesis
      • A hypothesis can be wrong - do not worry
      • It needs to be a controlled experiment
      • You need to have a control group and a variable group and that means that you need to be in control of the variables
      • Nobody here can work with a plant
      • You need to run 10 trials
      • With regard to variable groups, this is where the variable of choice comes into effect. Keep in mind that you can only change one variable at a time.
      • Color change is not good for the science fair because it is really hard to make a chart for that
      • You can graph something that is numerical
    • Variables
      • Controlled variables
        • These are variables that are kept the same throughout the entire course of your experiment
      • Manipulated variable
        • This is the variable that you are changing
        • This variable manifests itself in the variable group
      • Responding variable
        • This is the variable that you are measure and this variable results from the application of the manipulated variable
    • Conclusion
      • We draw a conclusion
      • Sometimes we can take it a step further and design a scientific law or or theory
      • A scientific law is a concise statement that summarizes the experiment or the results of an experiment. It is usually one sentence long and it is usually very mathematical.
      • A scientific theory gives an explanation of why experiments give certain results and it is much more detailed than the law. It is not one sentence and it used to explain phenomenon. We always like to explain things that we cannot.
      • Example of a law
        • The law of gravity
      • Examples of theories
        • The big bang theory
        • Pangaea
      • Theories can change. We once believed in spontaneous generation but now we do not.
      • Even laws can change if necessary

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