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Monitor

A monitor or display is an output peripheral device for computers. A modern-day monitor is called a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), which works by striking electronics through a liquid film. Older type of monitors are called a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) which works by accelerating electronic beams into the screen. Monitors were used to process data, while television receivers was only used for entertainment. Now they are both used for either.

Variety

There are two general types of monitor technology, Cathode Ray Tubes and Liquid Crystal Displays. LCD are modern because of it’s cheaper build, compact size and a magnitude of more higher technical specifications. LCDs have more different specific types of options while CRTs do not.

Cathode Ray Tube

The first technology type of computer monitors were Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs). CRTs were commonly built in with the computer itself (and maybe even the keyboard). These types of monitors in the late 1970’s were poorly built compared to some better models.

Over the years, CRTs have slowly gotten better. Apple and Atari was the first one to invent color displays, and now became much more common. CRTs were very large and heavy because of their technology (which had an electron gun built in to strike electrons towards the screen).

Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Display

The Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (or just LCD) came out a couple decades later, and more popularised in the 21st century. LCDs work by projecting electronics into a liquid filled film, allowing it to change colors and views for the user. The first use of LCDs were mostly in laptops because of the low power, lightweight and much smaller size during the 1990’s. It was until later then after the use of LCDs in laptops, the Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD) now became the dominant technology for modern LCDs.

Standalone LCDs which appeared in the mid-1990s came out for high prices, but declined over the years as they became much more popular. They were finally competing with CRTs and in 2003, they outsold them. LCDs became the primary technology for computer monitors in now modern day. A lot of factors made them much more superior to their CRT counterpart, like low power consumption, less space, lighter (but wouldn’t be a problem in a stationary environment). The advantages in a Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Display which came after regular LCDs (which is every single monitor in modern day) are the fact that they have less flickering (reduced eye strain), high temporal accuracy and used for vision research. Although, CRTs have a much better contrast, response time, can use multiple screen resolutions natively and have no flicker if the refresh rate is set somewhat higher.

Twisted Nematic (TN)

A Twisted Nematic display is the most common type of TFT-LCD monitors. Mainly used by consumers, the pixel response is very fast in order to avoid shadow-trailing and ghosting. While being inexpensive, TN displays usually have a response time of 4ms to 2ms.

Twisted Nematic displays do have limited viewing angles especially in vertical directions (try it yourself). They also limit with only having six bits per RGB color, which makes 18 bit in total. They cannot display the high quality 16.7 million color shades (or 24-bit truecolor) that modern day video cards can fully drive. TN panels display interpolated 24-bit color using a method called ‘Dithering’ that combines each nearby pixel to create the illusion of said shade.

Computers | Hardware


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