DEVTOME.COM HOSTING COSTS HAVE BEGUN TO EXCEED 115$ MONTHLY. THE ADMINISTRATION IS NO LONGER ABLE TO HANDLE THE COST WITHOUT ASSISTANCE DUE TO THE RISING COST. THIS HAS BEEN OCCURRING FOR ALMOST A YEAR, BUT WE HAVE BEEN HANDLING IT FROM OUR OWN POCKETS. HOWEVER, WITH LITERALLY NO DONATIONS FOR THE PAST 2+ YEARS IT HAS DEPLETED THE BUDGET IN SHORT ORDER WITH THE INCREASE IN ACTIVITY ON THE SITE IN THE PAST 6 MONTHS. OUR CPU USAGE HAS BECOME TOO HIGH TO REMAIN ON A REASONABLE COSTING PLAN THAT WE COULD MAINTAIN. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO SUPPORT THE DEVTOME PROJECT AND KEEP THE SITE UP/ALIVE PLEASE DONATE (EVEN IF ITS A SATOSHI) TO OUR DEVCOIN 1M4PCuMXvpWX6LHPkBEf3LJ2z1boZv4EQa OR OUR BTC WALLET 16eqEcqfw4zHUh2znvMcmRzGVwCn7CJLxR TO ALLOW US TO AFFORD THE HOSTING.

THE DEVCOIN AND DEVTOME PROJECTS ARE BOTH VERY IMPORTANT TO THE COMMUNITY. PLEASE CONTRIBUTE TO ITS FURTHER SUCCESS FOR ANOTHER 5 OR MORE YEARS!

An Overview of Hopi Culture

Located in the southwest ethnographic region of North America, the Hopi culture reflects how they had to adapt to their extremely arid environment. Themes of cooperation, earth stewardship, and humility are most likely directly based on the need for strong kinship ties in order to survive.

Many different versions of the Hopi creation story exist, though all in some form tell of the Native Americans’ travel from the fourth world, to the third, the world we now exist in. When offered corn by the Ma’saw, the earth spirit, all the other peoples took the largest ears, while the Hopi’s ancestors, the Hisatsinom (people of long ago)1) took the smallest ear, the blue corn, and their forced adaptation to their resulting harsh environment2).

Their desert environment was dry, and filled with mesas and buttes, and the Hopi took advantage of every usable piece of land. Fields were often crown on the tops of mesas, or in the crags and valleys below. Hopi subsistence revolved(s) mainly around blue corn, though they also domesticated squash, beans, melons, and cotton 3). Hunting, while still practiced, did not make up most of their diet, as it did (does) with hunter-gatherer groups.

This dependence on corn revolves around an aspect of the Hopi creation legend, where Native Americans as a whole traveled from the third to the fourth world. Hopi culture is based on these themes of hardship and adaptation to an inhospitable environment with its values of respect, cooperation, humility, and respect for the earth which nurtured them (Hopi Cultural Preservation Office: 1996).

To adapt to this harsh environment, the Hopi developed several agricultural techniques, including irrigated gardening, akchin farming, and floodwater farming.

Irrigated gardening entailed crops grown in rock-walled, steppe style fields on the sides of mesas, where water flowed down aqueducts, or was transported by hand buckets. More inclined to using nature to the best possible advantage, is the Hopi’s most common farming technique, where crops were planted in areas where the floodwaters from melting snows and bursts of showers spread out at the mouth of a gully or arroyo. Similar to this is floodwater farming, where planted in fields or large natural washes, the crops are watered by showers and melting snow4). Other minor techniques were the dune fields of beans, and fruit trees planted wherever possible.

Hunting, while still practiced, was not a large proportion of the Hopis’ diet. Black tailed jackrabbits were prized prey, because of their difficulty to kill (Jones: 1999).

The Hopi, as did many other southwestern Native American groups, used pueblo dwellings{(Kuwawata: 2001)), not only because they were space efficient, but because the adobe material they were (are) made of, was (is) very insulated. They used these permanent dwellings all year round, so mobility was at a minimum outside of trade.

These structure were made by wooden frames, the walls made by nearby native stone, as well as grass and brush, and plastered over with adobe mud and clay. Doors were located on the roof to protect against attackers, with ladders leading from one floor to the next, and could be removed easily. Terraces on the roofs of all levels served as a place to dry crops, and where materials could be readily accessed, as did pit houses, where food was stored for longer periods of time.

The Hopi were (are) matriarchal and matrilineal, tracing their heritage through the female, as well as real estate 5). Men, rather than women, such as in patriarchal societies, try to appear attractive in order to be chosen by a woman, often wearing ornate turquoise jewelry. When an ‘engagement’ is recognized, the man will often spend most of his time, for periods of up to six months, assisting in the future wife’s household, and when the marriage occurs, he will come to live in his wife’s home.

Division of labor is fairly equal among the genders, with the men working the fields, and responsible for clearing crops, while women assisted them in tending and harvesting the crops, and the care of seeds and distribution of food 6).

Strong kinship ties were key to survival in their environment, and the Hopi participated in group hunts between clans. These are determined by who the individuals trace their heritage to, and which aspect of the creation story is theirs 7). In one village, there may be two or three clans represented, and of the thirty-four, duties specific to each are rotated among themselves, such as hosting ceremonies, and the holding of offices.

Crafts the Hopi used include intricately painted pottery, woven baskets, silver and turquoise jewelry, and kachina dolls. Architectural feats including not only their adobe housing, but the broken pottery lined roads they used for trade.

Still existing today on the Hopi reservation, the Hopi culture has influenced our modern one, and many of their agriculture techniques are used today. They were a very adaptive people who survived well in their environment.

See Also

Bibliography

Categories

Footnotes

1) Kuwawata: 2001
2) Painted Horse War Dance Society: 1999
3) , 4) , 6) , 7) Hopi Cultural Preservation Office: 1996
5) Dukeman: 2002

QR Code
QR Code hopi_culture (generated for current page)
 

Advertise with Anonymous Ads