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Green Revolution in India Green Revolution is a significant improvement in the sector of agricultural production . In the year of 1964-65 green revolution in the ” new agriculture techniques ” was the result . The new strategy of high -yielding varieties of seeds , chemical fertilizers , pesticides , modern efficient equipment , multiple cropping , irrigation facilities and agricultural credit is envisaged raising farm output .

Manage the production of agricultural stagnation and the rapid increase in the need for strategies to increase agricultural production in the face of demand were needed . 1960 in the seven districts in an intensive development program and the program of intensive agricultural activities (IADP) was named .

This program , assured irrigation and rainfall , conditions are favorable for the selected area immediately to increase agricultural production was an intensive effort . This credit , fertilizer , seed , plant protection and minor irrigation has been included in the provisions of the input supply .

The seven districts of West Godavari , Shahabad, Raipur , Tanjavur, Ludhiana , Aligarh and was Pali . For the first four maize , wheat and rice for the last one , is selected for the next two . In 1964-65 , the area of intensive agricultural activities (IAAP) is the growth of the rest of India. The 1960 period was very important in the eye of agriculture .

Manage high-production varieties of wheat in 1966 Kharif season performance , and (HYVP) program is a high-yielding varieties . It irrigation , fertilizers , and seeds , pesticides and insecticides are highly dependent on high-yielding varieties of this package program .

The total area is 1.89 million hectares was implemented . The eve of the fourth plan , coverage was expanded to 9.2 million hectares . In 1989 - 90 the total area of 63.8 million hectares , about 35% of the gross cropped area . Green Revolution Resources :

12 of the Green Revolution :

 ( I ) Seeds of high yielding varieties (HYV); 
 ( II ) Irrigation : ( a) surface and ( b ) the ground , 
 (III) ( chemical ) fertilizer use , 
 ( IV ) Pesticides and insecticides use , 
 (V ) The development of  holding 's 
 ( VI ) Integration , 
 ( VII ) land reform , 
 ( VIII ) The supply of agricultural credit ; 
 (IX) Rural Electrification ; 
 (X) ' Rural Roads and marketing ; 
 ( XI ) Mechanization of agricultural ; 
 (XII) Agricultural University .

Effects of Green Revolution :

( I) The serial production boost :

The main achievement of the strategy 's main crop production , for example. , Wheat and rice are okay .

11 million tons in 1960-61 , which stood in wheat production in 2005-2006 rose to 91.8 million tons . This increase in production of wheat accounted for an extension , but the yield per hectare in the last 45 years, meaning an increase of 3.5 times , 8.5 quintals from 26,02 quintals per hectare can be increased .

The Green Revolution did not cover the peas . It declined during 1979-80 8 million tons less of an Ail violently fluctuated from year to year until the output pulses . From 13 million tons in 1960-61 .

Even now, around 13 to 15 million tons per year production of pulses fluctuates. Neither the Green Revolution cover barley , ragi and minor - not corn . So , the Green Revolution , only high-yielding varieties (HYV) of cereals , mainly rice , wheat , maize and water was limited . Rice output in a relatively slow rate of increase, while the singular crop was wheat showed a continuous increasing trend . This was true of potatoes .

( II) An increase in the production of commercial crops :

The Green Revolution was directed mainly to an increase in food grain production . This is primarily as sugarcane , cotton , jute , oilseeds and commercial crops of potatoes not affecting cash crop production , the crop of 1960-61 and 1973-74 did not record any significant improvement .

( III ) To boost agricultural production and employment :

The successful adoption of new agricultural technologies to increase agricultural production and increase the total amount of the product , the continuous expansion of the area under crops has led to . The results are impressive rice , corn , potatoes , etc. , wheat has been achieved

Because of new technology, multiple cropping and hired workers in various job opportunities created by the transfer of agricultural employment has been given a boost . At the same time , the widespread use of agricultural machinery have been displaced by the agricultural labor .

( IV ) Strengthen forward and backward linkages :

New technology and agricultural modernization in the agricultural industry with a lot of input from the linkage between the agricultural industry was always strong , even in traditional agricultural agriculture linkages, and the industry has been strengthened , but the backward linkage industries of agriculture - the latter was the finished product using the weak .

( V ) Regional Inequalities :

HYVP ( high-yielding varieties program ) in 1996-97 to a small area of 1.89 million hectares of gross cropped area of innovations and even in 1997-98, only 40 per cent of the 76 million hectares were covered .

Obviously, the advantages of the new technology was concentrated only in this area . In addition , the program is only limited to wheat . For several years , benefitted the area, who was growing wheat . This Punjab , Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh region was .

( VI ) Social unwanted results :

They cultivate it themselves as it is more profitable to farmers who evicted the tenants . Now , the tenants have achieved the status of landless agricultural laborers . Capital investment in the purchase of farm land have attracted industrialists wet . Accentuates the difference between the rural class polarization process has been intensified by the Green Revolution .

Accompanied by the modernization of farm mechanization technologies increases the risk of accidents . I was ambivalent attitude towards the victims . Green Revolution in agriculture on a large scale spraying of toxic chemicals have been increasingly used in more injuries . Naturally , HYV seeds need a lot of toxic pesticides .

(VII) Attitudes in change :

Green Revolution in agriculture to increase productivity of subsistence farmers, agriculturists and farmers to earn money from the state to increase . The effectiveness of the new technology is available for the ingredients of a farmer in the Wolf Ledejinsky .

Better farming methods and a better quality of life for countless farmers in the proof of this qualitative change in the short-term and long-term investment decisions by farmers are still outside looking in. .

The show started off the back of the green revolution , agriculture needs to change is included . Sustainable agricultural policies vigorously biofertilizers, Integrated Pest Management , Command Area Development , eco-friendly technology , precision farming , integrated nutrient management , an evergreen revolution will ensure that efficient post- harvest management and use of the practice should be followed .

Dry zone agriculture should be accorded high priority in the coming years , but at the same time trying to bridge the gap between potential created and actual realization of the need to move forward .

( VIII ) Jobs :

Because of new technology, the transfer of multiple cropping and hiring staff to create employment opportunities have been given a boost . At the same time , through the use of agricultural machinery has displaced more than labor .

(IX) Forward and backward linkages:

Even under traditional agriculture , industry, agriculture ahead with linkage was always strong . The agricultural industry in the backward linkage was weak . The green revolution has created demand for inputs produced by industry and thus the backward linkage has been established .

Market -based :

The new technology, farmers , market -oriented have . Farmers for the supply of inputs and their outputs are mainly sold in the market for .

Superior to traditional technology :

Green Revolution substantial modern technology , undoubtedly has proven its superiority . What is required to use local resources , which could be adopted by small farmers , which is a low -cost technology , that is . Sociological effects :

There are two discomforting aspects of the green revolution , the green revolution, the rural sector, inequality has increased , and secondly , it has been responsible for the growth of regional disparities .

( A) Personal imbalance :

The organizational structure of the rural economy has always favored rice . The Green Revolution , its scale - despite the neutral nature , have been adopted by small and marginal farmers . Modern technology can be used only as a complete package . Small farmers can not afford to acquire all the input . Because of the smallness of their holdings , they are denied credit facilities .

As a result , small farmers have been left out of the green revolution . Knowledge required to use the new technology . In order to provide this service to their rich farmers to cultivate and maintain that contact is . Small farmers have been ignored by the extension .

( B ) Regional disparities :

The package of HYV program with adequate irrigation facility was the only new technology that can be applied to the region . Nearly one- third of the total cultivable land, irrigation facilities are available . Two- thirds of the total cultivable land , such as the Revolution , the impact will be excluded from the report .


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