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Gena Universal Language Part 3

Introduction

This is part 3 of the Universal Language Gena tutorial. In this tutorial I will explain how to make a sentence negative. Some more vocabulary will be introduced: Colors, days of the week and month of the year. Then I will describe some more details about the different part of speech and how to transforms words to the different parts of speech. Furthermore, I will explain the amount of words that it will take to be fluent in the language and give a list of the top 100 words that is used in Gena. Gena is an artificial language that is design to be easy to learn and simple to use.

Negative Sentence

To transform a sentence into the negative form, one adds “zy” to the beginning of the sentence. In English one adds some keyword such as no, not, etc. Gena does not use a keyword to do this but whether it is made by adding the “zy” modifier to the beginning of the sentence. See below for some example.

The cat is not black. – Zy da gata ne negru.
The table is not small. – Zy da mesa ne petitu.
Matthew is not home. – Zy Matthew ne casa.

Parts of Speech

As explain in the earlier tutorial, the last letter of a word dictates how the word will be used in the sentence. For example if the last letter of the word is an “a” than the word would be a noun or if the last letter of the word is an “e” than the word would be used as a verb. Keeping with the goal of being flexible in Gena , a word can be used as a different part of speech by just changing the last letter to the appropriate vowel based on the part of speech the word is to be used. This can’t be done in English, let’s look at the below example to demonstrate this.

“John is having a party” – the grammar of this sentence is correct.  Note that “party” is being used as a noun in this sentence.
“I am partying tonight” – the grammar of this sentence is not correct because “party” is being used as a verb.  The grammar is not 
correct but in spoken English many people uses nouns as a verb.  However, in Gena this would be perfectly fine as one can change 
the part of speech by just changing the last letter.

In Gena, one can convert a word into whatever part of speech one wants by simply changing the last letter to the appropriate vowel that corresponds to the part of speech one want to use. This makes the language very flexible, and also, easy to learn. See below for some examples.

Red is a color. – Pula ne colora.
The red chair is big. – Da cadira pulu ne bigu.

Note, in the first sentence “red” (pula) is used as a noun; thus, it ends with an “a”. In the second sentence “red” (pulu) is used as an adjective; so, it ends with the letter “u”.

Vocabulary List Colors (ja’ colora)

Red – pula
Blue – modra
Orange –taronha
Brown – mara
Black –negra
White – putiha
Pink –rosa
Green –verda
Yellow –gula

Note:  the colors are listed in the noun form.  If these are going to be used as adjective then the last letter will needed to be changed to “u”

Vocabulary List Days of the Week

Days – ja’va
 Monday – hava
Tuesday – bava
Wednesday – cava
Thursday – dava
Friday – heva
Saturday – fava
Sunday – gava

Note: the word for day is “va” and the first part of days (if you remember from the earlier tutorial) is Gena for a number.  
For example, “hava”(Monday) means “1 day” and “cava” (Tuesday) means “2 day” and so forth.  This is a common practice in 
Gena for vocabulary, as it makes it easier to memorize and remember words in Gena.

Vocabulary List Months of the Year

Months – ja’mona
January – hamona		July -gamona
February – bamona		August - hymona
March – camona		        September -himona
April – damona			October - lamona
May – hemona			November – hahamona
June – famona			December – habamona
Note: like the days of the week, “hamona” (January) means “1 month.  The reason for his is given above

How Many Word Do One Need to be Fluent in Gena

Note: the following statistics are based on the research on many languages and are estimates but should be close to what one needs to be fluent in Gena. The short answer to this question is that in most language one needs to know about 3000 to 5000 words to be proficient in a language. This is the number of words an average 8th grader use on a daily basis, and according to a study, is the number of words that one needs to know 95% of the words used in newspapers and magazine, such as the New York Times. While an average college graduate usually knows between 20,000 to 50,000 words. According to the research that I have done, the top 100 words used in a language represent 50% of the words need to have an everyday conversation. The top 1000 used words will represent about 75% of the words that is used on a daily basis. While the top 2000 used word will represent about 85% of the words and the top 3000 words will consist of about 95% of the words used every day. As one can see, there is a diminishing return in learning vocabulary of a language when it comes to daily conversations. Again, this is just a rough estimate on the amount of vocabulary one needs to communicate effectively with another person but it does appear that a vocabulary of 3000 words would be a good target to shoot for if one wants to communicate in Gena.

Top 100 words

Top 100 Words:
1)	And - ni
2)	To -  ti
3)	I - ma
4)	You - ta
5)	He - na
6)	She - sa
7)	We – ja’ma
8)	They – ja’na
9)	But - marri
10)	Be - se
11)	This - hi
12)	That - gi
13)	One - huma
14)	What - cada
15)	Two - dosa
16)	Who - cesa
17)	After - pasi
18)	Day -  ta
19)	With - meti
20)	From - vani
21)	How - hini
22)	By - poro
23)	Which - deni
24)	Play –mangima
25)	Year - vita
26)	Can - cane
27)	Such - tali
28)	Only - nuru
29)	More - namu
30)	Or - fi
31)	Would - ville
32)	Say - sune
33)	If - bi
34)	Until - doci
35)	When - cada
36)	Time - tida
37)	Here - hapa
38)	That - data
39)	Other - lota
40)	Talk - parla
41)	My – yo’ma
42)	Even - cahitna
43)	Life - viva
44)	First - huna
45)	Very - moltu
46)	New - novu
47)	Well - godto
48)	Hand - handa
49)	Work - pune
50)	Each - cila
51)	Want - ze 
52)	Good - guti
53)	Now - hono
54)	Word - vorta
55)	Have - hete
56)	Place - pycca
57)	Also - halso
58)	Face - gesiga
59)	Use - kasutama
60)	Go - minema
61)	Come - tulema
62)	Make - tegema
63)	Small - peti
64)	Water - voda
65)	Between - milli
66)	Always - palagi
67)	Give -  done
68)	City - cota
69)	Put - pute
70)	Same - same
71)	Great - moru
72)	Time - tida
73)	Find - finne
74)	Know - sabe
75)	Take - tome
76)	People - persona
77)	Last - lastu
78)	Little - pacu
79)	Next - dalsi
80)	Different - diversu
81)	Eat - come
82)	Show - tone
83)	Think - denke
84)	Child - kinda
85)	Mother - fama
86)	House - casa
87)	Run - rune
88)	Together - bersama
89)	Boy - nena
90)	Girl - kica
91)	Call - calle
92)	Walk - gange
93)	Old - vellu
94)	Down - dolu
95)	Write - cundika
96)	High - visoka
97)	Follow - volge
98)	Look - líta
99)	Long – longu
100)	Back - lura

Note: this is just an estimate of what I believe the top 100 words would be. I look through the top 100 words of other languages and looked for words that appeared in many of the list and included those in my top 100 words for Gena. I will tried to come up with a more accurate top 100 words list, and also the 3000 word base vocabulary for Gena at a later time.

Conclusions

This is part 3 of the tutorial for Gena – the Universal Language. The focus of this tutorial was to show how to make a sentence negative and explaining in more detail how words are used in Gena. Furthermore, some new vocabulary was introduced: colors, days of the week and months of the year. Also, in this tutorial we explained how much vocabulary one needs to be fluent in Gena. Gena is an artificial language that is design to be easy to learn and simple to use.

language_and_linguistics


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