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Gena: Universal Language

Introduction

This is the second tutorial on Gena - the Universal Language. The focus of the second tutorial will be on expanding one vocabulary. Also in this article, the active and passive voice and how they are used in Gena will be explained. Then this tutorial will explain how clauses are used in Gena. Furthermore, Gena personal pronouns will be shown and comparative adjective will be explained. Lastly, the process of forming a question will be described. Gena is an artificial language that is design to be easy to learn which will allow people to communicate with people whom speak other languages.

Active and Passive Voice

An active voice sentence is one when the subject of the sentence is doing the action. For example, the following sentence is in the active voice.

The boy hit the ball.
In the above sentence the subject (boy) is performing the action (hit the ball).

A passive voice sentence is one when the subject is acted upon or receives the action of the verb. For example, taking the sentence above one can change it to passive voice.

The ball was hit by the boy
In the above sentence, the ball which is in the object case was acted upon by the verb “hit”.  Notice that “boy” is not the subject of the sentence.

In Gena, there is no passive voice, only the active voice will be used. The reason is that the passive voice tends to lead to awkward sentence structure and can lead to confusion. Also, when most people speak they use the active voice which is often more concise. Since the goal is to make a language that is easy to learn and the fact that a passive sentence can be changed into an active voice sentences, it would make perfect sense to just do away with the passive voice in Gena.

Word Origins in Gena

Words in Gena are mainly derived from the most spoken languages that are in existences. I do play homage to the smaller language and to extinct languages but they play a smaller role in the vocabulary. Below are some vocabulary lists that are derived from some common spoken languages.

Vocabulary List Animals derived from Japanese:
Pig – buta
Hippopotamus – caba
Bear – Cuma
Cat – gata
Camel – racuda
Tiger – tora
Deer – qica
Fish – sacana
Vocabulary List derived from Russian:
Map – carta			Flour – muca			Lamp – lampa
Hospital – bolnitsa		Lamb – baranina		        Painting – cartina
Mountain – gora		        Turnip – repa			Blackboard – dosca
Valley – dolina			Chicken  - kuritsa		Quiz – victorina
River – reca			Fork – vilca			Paper – burnaga
Cosmetics – cosmetic		Dish – posuda			Letter – bucva
Washcloth – salfetca		Cup – kaqca			Stamp – marca
Library – bibliteca		Oven – duhovca			Leg – noga
Minute – minuta		        Guitar – gitara			Fly – mucha
Second (time) – secunda	        Room – comnata		Road – doroga
Machine – maqina		Light bulb – lampokca		Boat – lodca
Girlfriend – devuqca		Sponge – gubca			Boat – lodca
Spring – vesna			Head – golova			Arm – ruca
Kidney – pokca			Cabin – cabina			Pillow – poduqca
Figure – figura			Lip – guba			Coin – moneta
Bread – boroda			Hanger – veqalca		Team – comanda
Vocabulary List derived from Hindi:
Week – hafta
Teacher – qicqica
Foot – panva
Chest – sena
Vocabulary List derived from Arabic:
Class – hissa			Evening – masa
Flight – rihla			Material –madda
Electricity – kahruba		Headache – suda
Sky – sama			Desert – sahara
Yard – fina			Lobby – rudha
Magazine – magalla		Lecture – muhadara
Jacket – sutra			Pajamas – bigama
Eraser – mimha			Ruler – mastara
Language – luga			Kneecap – radfa
Plan – hutta			Factory – masna
Shipment – suhna		Company – sarika
Building – mabna		Bee – nahla
Beetle – hunfisa		Tree – sagara
Vehicle – marcaba		Truck – sahina
Winter – sita			Church – canisa
Shoe – hida			Game –luba
Vocabulary List derived from Punjabi:
Flowerpot – gamla
Drum –tabla
Carpet – galika
Balloon - gubara
Fountain – fuhara
Spoon – kamka
Air – hawa
Plant – buta
Parrot – tota
Vocabulary List derived from Korean:
Dormitory – gisuksa
Ka – tea
Newspaper – sinmunsa
Screw – nasa
Skirt – kima
Nurse – ganhosa
Train – gika
Vocabulary List derived from Turkish
Happy - Mutlu 				Beer – bira
Part – parca				Husband – coca
Hasta –sickness				Microwave – microdalga
Field – tarla				Insurance – sigorta
Lounge – loca				Undershirt – fanila
Receipt – fatura			Mail – posta
Discussion – tartisma			Brand – marka
Money – para				Bank – banca
Vocabulary List derived from Irish:
Card – carta				Coat – cota
Covarsa – neighbor			Course – cursa
Davsa – dance				Announcement – fogra
Police – garda				Hall – halla
Hat – hata				Bag – mala
Note – nota				Pocket – poca
Sugar – sucra
Vocabualry Vietnames
Terminal – sanga
Floor – sanna
Necktie – cavata
Gift – monca
To turn - Re

Clauses

There are two types of clauses: Independent clauses and dependent clauses. Dependent clauses needs a supporting sentence to give it full meaning, where as an independent clauses can stand alone as a sentence.

An example of a dependent clause:
The boy wondered if his parents are home.
The dependent clause is  “if his parents are home”
An example of an independent clause:
Jim was tired; however, he continued to work.
The independent clause is “however, he continued to work.”

In this tutorial we will explain the usage of independent clauses in Gena and in a later tutorial we will explain the usage of dependent clauses in Gena. To keep with the goal of easy to learn and simple to use, we will do away with the independent clause in Gena. Since, independent clauses can be broken down into separate sentences; in Gena, one would just separate the sentences.

Personal Pronouns

Personal Pronouns are static in Gena; they do not change it form base on how it is used in the sentence. Also, one would notice that the plurals are the same as the singles with the “ja” added to the singles. Remember from the previous tutorial to make a noun a plurals one add “ja” to the beginning of the noun. This makes it easier to memorize.

Personal Pronouns
I – ma			We – ja’ma
You – ta	`	you – ja’ta
He/it – na		they – ja’na
She - sa

Verb to be

The verb “to be” is used to express a state of being. To be – ne Use of the verb “to be” – “ne” with personal pronouns is shown below.

I am – ma ne			We are – ja’ma ne
You are – ta ne	`		you are – ja’ta ne
He/it is – na ne		they are – ja’na ne
She is – sa ne

Comparative Adjective

Comparative adjective are a special form of an adjective that helps one compare one noun to another. For example,

That dog is bigger than my dog.
In the above sentence, the comparative adjective is “bigger”.  It compares “that dog” to “my dog”.

In Gena, one forms a comparative adjective by adding “ji” to the beginning of the adjective. Note that in English there is also a superlative case which represents the “est” at the end of the adjective. For example, look at the following sentence. “That dog is the biggest, I have seen.” In Gena there is no superlative case, only the comparative case. This is done to simplify the language in Gena. Spanish is also, like this.

Examples:
Big – bigu			bigger – ji’bigu
Small – petitu			smaller – ji’petitu
Long –  largu			longer – ji’largu

How to Form a Question

To form a question in Gena, one just adds “wo” to the beginning of the sentence and the word order is the same as with a regular sentence. In other words the word order does not change. See below for example.

Is the cat big? – Wo da gata ne bigu?
Is the table black? - Wo da mesa ne negru?
Is the chair small? - Wo da cadira ne menu?

Conclusion

This is the second tutorial on the Universal Language Gena. In this tutorial we explained the origin of the vocabulary, the usage of clauses and the usage of the passive and active voice in Gena. Furthermore, we describe how to form a question, the personal pronouns and the comparative adjective in Gena. Gena is artificial language that is meant to be easy to use and simple to learn.

language_and_linguistics


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