ENST 201 Notes


The following notes were taken during an Environmental Studies class at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. They are not to be reproduced in full or part without the permission of the poster.

Two Schools of Thought:

1. Cornocopian: believed environmental problems were not important and that society would deal with it because:

A) Free markets: supply & demand concept, when demand is higher than supply, prices increase, and this price change can lead to innovation (ex. Alt. energy, fracking, biofuels)
B) Human ingenuity: humanity is resourceful, skillful, and have a lot of faith that nothing will need to be done now, “if aint broke, don’t fix it”

They believed that as long as the government stays out of the way, the environment will be fine!

Founder: Julian Simon, his book The Ultimate Resource attacked family planning, while claiming that it prevented our development and human progress.

Believers: economists, engineers, Heritage Foundationers, Libertarians

2. Neomalthusian: based off the ideas of Malthus, who believed human population would increase indefinitely until something bad happened, like resources ran out. Carrying capacity was established, and that there were three positive checks:

A) War
B) Famine
C) Disease

The problem with this is that he didn’t see contraceptive, food in mass production- that technological innovation could increase the carrying capacity.

Neomalthusians believe that humans can increase the carrying capacity but if we do not take care of the environment, then the c.c. will decrease, like if we: A) Convert arable land to parking decks B) Put limits on our hydrological cycle C) Pollute aquatic food sources

Climate change is UNPREDICTABLE aka the horror for agriculture and farmers, and that some of it (global warming) is caused my human impact.

Neomalthusians: A) Believe society must act intentionally because the market can fail, markets are not long-term and planners B) Worry about “tipping points” changes that happen so quickly that there is not time to adapt THEREFORE, they want to use government policy to put the markets in order and control them, they want to direct markets to produce more renewable energy Environment: political vs. social issue, how it affects policy in 2 party vs. multiparty

Maladaptation: when certain civilizations could not change their ways in order to adapt to their changing surroundings

Easter Island- Time frame: 400/500 A.D. Polynesians • SUBtropical island, not tropical, therefore no coral reef, FAR from mainland • Remote location-isolation- close system. Desire to evacuate or escape? Sorry! • Introduction of rats in Easter Island (exotic species) cracked the seeds of wine palm ☹ • People who had the most to gain= elites and they prevented change, there was greater inequality because of the elites • On Easter Island, depletion of animals and resources was GRADUAL & therefore much harder to perceive • Diversity on the island was lower, small seeds by birds were the only vegetation that could really reach it • CHILEAN WINE PALM- gave access to deep water fisheries, other closer islands for escape because of the wood for boats, sap for a fermented beverage, high protein • Based on SLASH AND BURN agriculture, brought yams, taro, rat, chicken

Population- different split into political units anarchical system (absence of higher power) and when they started to exceed their resources, competition took place, tragedy of the commons effect

Why Statues? • Ancestor worship • gods worship (religion) • COMPETITION of clans- show who has the most strength, dominance, status • Evolutionary psychology- hardwired to compete o Males compete vs. women select, fathers: where/ what are my daughters marrying into? o Well respected clan = peace, no conflict, and we’re trying to send that type of message o Emergence of polygamy HUGE demand for wood- because of cutting down the Chilean palm too much, too fast, too early - It happened over a long period of time, avg. generation= 30 years, cant notice the change, and even though there was a rich oral tradition, nothing written down

GREENLAND - Vikings established, Norse presence lasted 600 years then extinct - 9th century, 800 A.D. Vikings were the only people there, Inuits there before, but left and in 1000 A.D. they returned - Inuits vs. Vikings= HOSTILE relationship - Pastoral system (large landowners) ELITES w/ LAND CONTROL - Christianity (elites- bishops) - Had enough food to last through the winter, lived off animal products- meat, milk, and traded walrus ivory and sea protes (export) - Imported metal and finished goods from Norse system - Inuits= bone weapons vs. Norse with metal swords and shields - 1400s- disappeared, vanished - climate change 1350s- 1800s little Ice Age - Temperature going down, growing season decreased, no food for cattle This resulted in fewer animals and fewer animals. The Inuits adapted- they were hunter gathers ate caribou and seal, easily survived.

Why didn’t they change? A) Superiority (pride and confidence) B) Conservative, preserve their ways, what they were used to C) Elite- They don’t want to become hunter-gatherers, they want to stay at the top through the VALUE of their LAND (power source) but if you are a hunter-gather, that is not important anymore

Sumarians • First civilization, hunter-gatherers, small bands of people • “Cities” collections of populations 30,000- 50,000 • Brought writing, numerical system, records of harvest • 5,500 years ago, they applied a COMPLEX IRRIGATION SYSTEM, therefore increased food yields, growing crops at a more efficient level • LARGE group of people that became free of this food crunch o Became potters, blacksmiths, warriors, priests Civilization lasted over 1500 years, but then collapsed because of: • Limited rainfall (Tigris & Euphrates= not huge rivers) • Irrigation issues, left behind chemicals like salt, inhibiting roots to use H20 • Relied on only 2 crops: o Breadwheat- much more productive, but it wasn’t growing o Barley- more salt tolerant Originally 50/50 of each grain After 4500 years wheat= 15% After 4100 year- wheat abandoned After 3700 years- wheat no longer grew

Sumarians had a difficult time sustaining and fell victim to the Babylonians

Salinization/Desertification- How do we combat it? • Lime, alternate crops, drip irrigation- not solution, but would buy us a lot more time • GMO wheat plants could do well in salinization • Control the population and give land more time to recover However, Sumarians did not have the scientific tools to combat that

What can we learn? 1) Systems should be designed to be more resilient (ex. Predictable climate/flooding) 2) Population is a double-edged sword: greater internal market, but it cant outstrip carrying capacity 3) Not to treat limited resources as if they are abundant & never-ending 4) Human activity is causing global warming 5) Tipping point: would occur when temps get warm enough to create feedback cycle, frozen ice caps- as Earth gets warmer, organic material starts to decompose–→ release carbon and methane We could start a process of uncontrolled climate change CO2 in ocean= more acidic, oceanlife & fisheries 6) Don’t wait until the last minute to start fixing the problem, there is a need to be economically stable. Civilization is fragile- be conscious of it! 7) Social adaptation- more inequality, less adaptability 8) Humans eat, need more & more, increase in technology, increase in food 9) Better control the population 10) We need to invest more in tools for renewable energy

Population - 10,000 years ago, there were 3-4 million people - 1850-2000 crossed the billion point o RAPID INCREASE - 9 billion= leveling off because of carrying capacity - Annual Growth Rate o 10,000 BC= 0.008 o 1990= 1.845 o Doubling Rate Formula= 69.3/ Rate (ex. If increasing 3-4% per year, the population will double in 17 YEARS) o Life expectancy is increasing- not only are there more people, but they are living longer

Demographic Transition - Before they became industrial, all societies were hunter-gatherers/ agricultural and had high birth rates and high death rates - People like John Snow used to think instead of water disease that killed you, it was bad air. This continued until sanitization improved - INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- more food, better sanitization, living much longer, better housing, easier to keep out the rats - Role of public health= death rates go down o Medicine, antibiotics, vaccine, better nutrition

Birth Rates Fall- WHY? • Gender equality • Family Planning • Infant death rate dropped, families don’t need to be having 10 kids thinking 4 of them will die, only 6 kids now • URBANIZATION- don’t need as many children for labor, don’t have the space/ resources for them when living in a big city • Increase in education • Higher socioeconomic status • Roles in identity change

Stage 5 of demographic transition model = ? - food security? Life expectancy? Death rate? Nutrition?

Why agriculture cause death rates to increase? Why agriculture? • History is viewed as progressive, but is agriculture all its cracked up to be? • Hunter-gatherers lived in harsher climates- desert, arctic, rainforest, and still had leisure time • With agriculture, we are giving up a variety in our diet and trading diverse protein and vitamins/ plants & animals for carbohydrates o Higher risk, harder to adapt and move around o What if the harvest spoils? You are screwed! o Land-holding now means power and hierarchy= men vs. women o Agriculture- hard for everyone who is not a landowner o More polygamy to support to accomplish crop yields o Women had it really hard- weeding, planting, preparing More widespread disease because of agriculture, people are living in closer quarters (disease of filth) sanitization was not managed properly, human waste into environment

Hunter-gatherers worked 16hrs a weeks vs. our 50-60, so why turn to agriculture? • Population- women and children, lactation amenorrhea • H.G. don’t have their first menstruation cycle until 17/18. Why? Active lifestyle, low carbs, nuts fruits, takes a while to build up fat, breast feed more regularly to their babies, which acts as a contraceptive • Agriculture girls = 13/14, early starts to babies, body fat not high enough

Humans didn’t become agricultural to grow crops/ raise awareness, started because of the bottle gourd for carrying H2O, so why did we wait 10,000 years to start it? • Climate fluctuations begin to narrow, more stable, Brazil tribe- manitach- • Eat more carbs to increase fertility, gradual process, need to store the food, more sedentary

Risks? - Other people can find and take the food, starting to leave people behind to protect it, then they become trapped, more and more developed, no way out - H.G. women are not going to have the same power status anymore - Cultural structure, taboos to reduce violence, monogamy - Draw circles about who is in and who is out - If we survive, it is now a collaborative effort

Developments • Humans did not start their civilizations by the Tigris or Euphrates, but actually dry places, like present-day Azerbaijan • In China however, everyone was near a river for rice-growing purposes, UNTIL they realized rice could be grown when they flooded the river, therefore moved away from it

Hunter-Gatherers vs. Agriculture A) There was more respect A) Less respect/value for nature B) Greater connection with nature B) Here, you are growing your own C) They hunted in specific methods food, so nature is something that you (ie// running buffalo off a cliff) are against, not connected to

There used to be elephants in North America, big cats, HUGE bears, so what happened to them? 1. Climate Change 2. Humans had a meat frontier- hunting all the animals → extinction (Chronology of when animals went away coincides right when humans came)

Agriculturalists had problems with figuring out how to minimize risk, while optimizing the system, they didn’t want to starve, but felt they had to sacrifice harvests, yields

Two ways to do early agriculture: A) Extensive- if you want an increase in food production, increase the amount of land in which you are cultivating- cut down some forests, drive away neighbors, whatever it takes B) Intensive- Using more labor and capital to produce a better output on land

In the Middle Ages, the crops yields were low, the animals were small, why? Resulted from two types of extensive agriculture: • Pastoralism- focus on raising animals • Swidden agriculture- focus on rotating crops o To make the most of swidden agriculture, grow a variety of plants (20+ different kinds of the same one). That way, if one crops fails, not all of them will o Fallowing- allows soil to rest and recover o Not all plants were equal meaning that one variety of wheat might not produce as much, but it has other benefits like that it doesn’t need a lot of water, or it helps fight disease…. Basically, took advantage of genetic differences to grow stably o RISKS of swidden agriculture: • Drought & flooding • Crop diseases • Agricultural pests Present day, Swidden agriculture is found in places with poor soils, or people with low income like in the Philippines, Indonesia, Africa, etc

Pastoralism occurs in dry grasslands, east Africa, dry areas in general - In Central Asia, Mongolia, in the mountains or on plateaus - Northern part of Europe, reindeer pastoralism

How do they protect against risk? • Move around (summer= high elevation vs. winter= low elevation) • Domesticated dogs to keep track of herd • Maintaining a diversity of animals o In East African pastoralism, polygamy exists because the high power men are the ones with lots of cattle, but are cattle drought tolerant? NO! o Camels and goats- eat different plants: shrubs, grass, bushes- much better to grow in the area, because they last longer o Also, when some terrible natural disaster occurs, goats are going to reproduce a lot more quickly than cattle (goat herd= easy to restock)

Prof Gangi & the Witoto Indians in the Amazon! • Witoto Indians lived 5,000- 10,000 years back • They believe they are at war with animals and that animals like anteaters are the absolute hierarchy of evil • They believe you take on the characteristics of what you eat (cannibalism) and that by wearing the necklace of a jaguar or puma teeth, you show strength

Witoto Indians • Developed many types of one specific food • 100-120 clans • Women generally marry outside the clan and bring a dowry (like seeds and different plants) and this allowed them to maintain diversity and protection against crop disease • They would take a territory and divide it into 4 quadrants, in one would be the big longhouse where they would live for about 10 years and every year they cut down 1-2 hectors of land • 80% of fields= mantioch • Grew root crops like taro, and then peppers, pineapples, coca • Believed that women evolved from peanuts & men from tobacco

“Chagra” is the name for a field in its first year, and to grow this way requires an enormous amount of labor -Decreased soil fertility but its okay because mantioch can still grow in bad soil! - After about one year, they would “abandon” it and plant more trees like palms and fruit trees, “rastrojo:” these trees could grow densely and produce lots of fruits with protein and would use leaves for construction, then they would cut down the trees and eat the larva inside

Fertility • Very actively managed • “Coca” men are taking acts almost as a contraceptive, making them feel asexual o Men= pathetic if they sleep more than three or four hours a night, therefore, they are on a very addictive stimulus and eat mombay powder o Men and women do NOT sleep together, men on one side in the longhouse, women on the other. o Women are working, while men are sitting in circles every night, interpreting dreams and visions, stimulus curbed their appetite, could go 50-60 miles per day (not exactly a lot of time for them to be getting it on with each other in the bedroom o Women seek to have SMALL babies, and reduce their intake of calories o Then post-natal care is filled with high-protein from “rostrojo”

Witoto women often leave the society because much easier life outside of the clan • Chief= no authority if no life • Rank= extremely important

High- Mountain Pastoralism • Allows us to use the resources of land more thoroughly • HORSES= very important o They can survive really cold temperatures o Can be left to roam free, easier to care for BIG debates about animal stealings, “goaden” sheep they keep in mixed flocks Higher up you go, drier because of the rainshadow • Temporary rivers due to snowmelt • Yak/cattle hybrid grows well here as well as pigs • Pile up dong for fuel because because of energy shortages that usually happen

Extensive agriculture has limits, can only support “x” number of people • Selective breeding for animals (18th century) • Selective breeding for plants (20th century)

In 1710, sheep= 28lbs and cows= 370lbs Creating animals that could grow By 1795, sheep= 80lbs & cows= 800lbs bigger and faster

By the mid to late 19th century we are seeing technological changes • Transportation improvements → steam engines → before this, food trade was very minimal • Refrigeration is so important because it allows us to ship over a long distance o Fast shipping + refrigeration= industrialized agriculture o Allowed for canning, sterilization

Intensive agriculture • Industrial/ capitalized o Machinery inputs on given units of land Labor intensive- lots of people working on a piece of land o This method is dismissed by researchers (say it is inefficient) o For instance, organic agriculture- by working with ecosystem

Some more facts about our global food usage: 1850- 4 million tons of food traded globally 1880- 18 millions tons “ “ 1910- 40 million tons 1980- 200 million tons 2000- 300 million tons of just cereal grain being traded globally

China is the biggest grain producer; meaning that the country plays a big role in food security… trade is transforming agriculture. There has been an explosion in the amount of food produced per acre of land due to a growth in technology, allowing us to use the land more efficiently.

While wheat can live in drier places, its roots grow in an outward direction, and therefore to produce this grain, it takes more space.

Corn on the other hand has increased its supply rapidly. Why? Its roots grow downward, allowing the plant to grow more densely, creating a higher yield per acre. Hybridization has boosted corn yield, but the problem with this is that every year, farmers have to buy the seed again and again. Corn has many uses: food (not just corn or cornbread, but high fructose corn syrup) and animal feed, biofuels→ ethanol

Limits of technology: selective breeding of plants and animals

Most of what we eat are grains that are grown annually • Corn, wheat, barley, rye → grass family • With these types, they must be planted every year • Most of what we consume is the reproductive output of plants • How much energy is a plant putting into reproduction? o Plants put energy in seed production, building roots and stocks, leaves- more energy production, plants invest energy in protection (like chemical defenses)

In industrial agriculture, there is a lot of vulnerability due to the continuous planting • Pest vulnerability- combatted with pesticides • Water- combatted with irrigation • Soil and nutrients- combatted with fertilizer These things require: 1. ENERGY 2. CAPITAL

Dependent on machinery, fertilizers, pesticides The issue is that these can create a lot of environmental problems “Pesticide treadmill” came about from a study done in Nicaragua concerning cotton • The idea that when you start using pesticides, you cannot stop, run faster and faster, using more and more • Pesticides= more toxic over time, HOWEVER, now even though they are more toxic, they break down better, whereas DBT (formerly used in the first types of pesticides) does not break down for a long long long time

Farmers need better chemicals because of the resistance of plants -Cotton had one evil predator- the boweasal, so farmers started spraying DTP. Before, that was the only main pest, but now there are 52 pests that farmers have to protect against… why? • A lot of insects were already there, but when they started spraying chemicals, the ecosystem became altered and unbalanced • “Parasitoids” → coevolved in order to attack a specific bug, they kill you by eating you from the inside out o Damage the environment, bad for human health

In technology, breeding limits do exist: • We cannot continue to put all this energy into plant reproduction… its too much… we have to find a better way, basically we need: • NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Some decisions to make: Should we continue to subsidize the “big 5?” • Corn, soy, rice, wheat, cotton Negatives of it: • Because so much is being grown, we end up with a surplus and therefore, we find extra “uses” in them that aren’t always the best, like high fructose corn syrup • Undermines local famers globally o Mexican corn farmers are poor & are only able to grow a little in the first place due to the dry climate • This caused tons of farmers to go to the US, because they could not sell their crop Because of US subsidies, the global market AKA the world, became DEPENDENT on the cheaper affordable grains Response of the Bush administration combined with agribusiness resulted in the beginning of subsidizing ethanol for gas • Energy return on investment of ethanol → 1:1 …. We are getting the amount of energy out of it that we put into it…. Awful investment

A billion people = $1 or less a day Half of the population = $2 or less a day

Green Revolution- started in Mexico in the 1950s • Took packages of selective breeding to Mexico/ Punjab, India (less developed countries) • Saved lots of people from starvation • This afforded the world the chance of the worlds population to grow in a more stable manner

Green revolution problems: • Because the price of food fell, there was a large-scale displacement of rural to urban, farms to factories…. Except they didn’t find employment • Developing the needed technologies was a struggle Obesity-Hunger Paradox • Government subsidies make food artificially cheap, and therefore people buy more of it like corn and its high fructose corn syrup… Because it doesn’t cost a lot • US = 48th in the world for life expectancy • US is growing in inequality- we have the wealthy with lots of really great health insurance versus the poor, who sometimes have none, and as a result they are living shorter, unhealthy lifestyles • 1985- not even one state that had an obesity rate of 15-19% versus 2008, that was the lowest rate (Colorado) and there are 6+ states with a rate higher than 30% • The more money we spend on healthcare (and at this point we are pouring money into it) the less money that is left over for infrastructure, schools, etc • Every other developed country has universal healthcare, while here it is for profit • “Farm Bill” finances the “Big 5,” so in a sense we are subsidizing the foods that are bad for our health… US life expectancy is 78.24 years whereas in Manaco, it is 89.87 • City planning is a very bad system because it has caused us to be car dependent so the natural exercise the Europeans get from walking everywhere does not happen here • In the USA, low-income people shop in the center aisle because that is where you can get the most calories for your dollar, that is where you can feel full, buying already prepared foods • 47 million people in the US are on food stamps

Global Threats to Food Security • Water- increased competition for it, especially with urbanization taking H20 from nonrenewable resources o Fertilizers are contaminating the water, diminishing its quality to the point where the water isn’t even good enough to use for irrigation o “Water wars” are taking place and the threat of damming rivers is causing this: Jordan vs. Israel, Egypt vs. Ethiopia o Water-hungry plants are being grown in arid places that cannot sustain them o “Virtual water”- the idea of moving food around the world and therefore bringing water with it o Energy: most of our electricity comes from burning water • China’s coal plant needs water- going to cut off water from other parts of the country • France had to shut down their nuclear power plants because they didn’t have enough water to keep them going

This globalization is creating dependency issues (interdependent food web) that will cause political upheaval, regional droughts, and so on

More Threats to food security: • Crops need specific nutrients and supplies and they are dwindling o Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Oxygen, Carbon Markets thrive on what is in demand, but as the middle class increases, wealthier people have greater wants- like meat ( which takes a lot of resources) • Running out of arable land o This is threatening the WORLD’S BIODIVERSITY ie// rainforests, tropical environments POPULATION GROWTH- We are currently at 7.1 billion people o Pushing the limits from a lot of important crops o Global middle class is expanding o Limited resources vs. unlimited want

“Land grab”- when less developed countries (generally) sell their land to more developed countries so that the M.D.C.s can grow food on them o Mozambique o Ireland potato famine- Ireland was actually exporting food to Britain, because the wealthy did have land plots where grain was being grown vs. potatoes

Food Security Threats o Insects becoming resistant to pesticides o Huge amount of food waste o Lack of knowledge of agriculture in L.D.C.s o Underinvested in research Depletion of the world’s fisheries o Not many are well managed (Alaska and CA are the exceptions) o Environments (coral reefs) are being destroyed o Ocean acidification

CLIMATE CHANGE→ farmers need predictability and climate change inhibits that o As more energy is being put into the overall system, it results in more extreme weather like: o Heavy rainfall- washes away the soil, erosion o Drought- heat wave, cant grow crops Climate Change: • Crop pests are harder to deal with as the climate changes, if their season is extended, they are able to reproduce a new generation. With more bugs, there’s an increased reliance on pesticides • With climate cycle, its difficult to predict the hydrological cycle • Pathogens are becoming more prevalent, and as the temperature is warming, they are able to exist higher and higher up in elevation o Approaching the potato belt in the Andes o Malaria is expanding o Animal, human, and plant disease Researchers are linking seed production in grasses to changing nighttime temperatures- plants become stressed with warmer temperatures and as a result their reproduction shuts down Climate change is making food production less reliable → reducing the global food supply

Rising prices of energy- why is this so problematic for food?

	Transportation costs- by 1998, the average food on you plate had traveled 1,518 miles
	Mechanized farming system- dependent on oil
	Oil crisis- digging nutrients out like phosphorus that soil needs
	Biofuels production hurts global food, because it is taking away the food we would eat or the food we would feed to the livestock we would eat and instead turning it into really inefficient energy
	The use of pesticides/ fertilizers requires lots of natural gas use

Poor use of land • Paved over our arable land and made it into suburbs • #1 irrigated crop in the US= palms (grass) • Intoxic systems→ fertilizers getting washed into the Gulf of Mexico and creating chemical problems, pollution o Soil erosion • Desertification

Seafood fisheries are being so poorly managed (OVERFISHING) Along with this, ocean acidification is taking place, CO2 is being absorbed and the pH is changing, ecosystems too are changing as a result With all these threats, what do we do?! How do we feed a population that is approaching 9 billion people?!?!?!?! • Avoid food waste • Increase local food production (cultural standards are inhibiting us because lord forbid there be a single hole in a leaf of lettuce, we cant just eat around it, we have to throw the whole head of lettuce away! • We need to turn subsidies to change diets, leaning toward a more vegetarian-like lifestyle • Investing in more renewable energy (to lower CO2 emission) • Government needs to put more money into crops that are less water-thirsty o However, there are perverse incentives that undermine this • Ex// more electricity/ water used, the less it costs We need better pricing mechanisms like houses that use more water should have higher prices on that water, we should encourage less of a lawn, and more natural plants • Urban farming could use human waster as fertilizer/ energy • Reduce the subsidies that certain crops are getting • Change our sewage systems (mandating low-flush toilets) o The problem is there is a split incentive and disconnect with the builder and the buyer… the builder is going to put in a regular $100 toilet… why are they going to spend an extra $200 buying a toilet when the wholesale value of the house stays the same? We need to work out these land tenure issues, especially in L.D.C.s If the land is going to be ripped away and stolen from you in 2 years, why bother the upkeep on it? Why put the effort in? • Educate farmers, spend money for agricultural extension, not just the big farms, but education for smaller farms with say only 15 acres

GMOs- need to be made to be more readily available, and we need tools to increase our food output -moving a gene from one organism to another

Some promises of GMOs: • Seeds allow crops to be more efficient, bigger, grow closer together • By genetically modifying crops, we are finding ways to give plants better defenses against pests or weeds, etc • Modifying crops- golden rice in 2001, get gene from daffodils (beta carotene) that was added to rice to help reduce blindness (not enough) • GMOs allow us to respond to new and immerging crop diseases • Helping Less Developed Countries feed their poor • Creating crops that need less water, and also crops that can grow in not as purified water and in harsher climates ie// salinized soil • Legumes- able to produce their own nitrogen- lets take the gene and use it to make plants that can create their own as well

Downfalls • GMO vs. selective breeding → have to buy the seeds every year • Patenting: corporation can control the supply, makes research expensive and slow, don’t want rival companies stealing their work

Continuation of Downfalls of GMO Crops: • Smaller farmers- their customers don’t want GMOs • Fighting over labeling laws • Biodiversity Treaty (1992 Rio Conference) U.S. didn’t sign it because the thought there was that if a country found a chemical compound and put it in a crop, you would have to share the money with the country that grew that crop • L.D.C.s (Less Developed Countries) are complaining that we are stealing what is rightfully theirs ie// India neem tree- India’s people have always used it for medicine, and then the US patented the chemical compounds they found inside it for medicinal purposes → India= offended • Downfalls- What are the ling term health and safety risks? What’s it doing to pollenization? • GMOs are outcompeting wild organisms • People say that GMOs aren’t even nature, but that its humans playing God, so there are ethical objections

Technologies that will help small farmers produce more food: • Labor-intensive agriculture can be done in a very efficient way o Offers more jobs o Rwanda farmers- each has maybe an acre of land, and technology is destroying jobs there With wet rice as well, we’re trying to create an artificial ecosystem, pushing it in the direction that we want, to get the most out of it In order for labor-intensive agriculture to work, the marginal return on labor must be greater, because if the return is smaller, then we are losing money That creates agricultural involution, and less profit/$/food per person

Agro ecology- what kind of system is it? Ie// with wet rice, we have created a wetland, you can farm rice and frogs and fish and crustaceans and water fowl, and then other plants with it like Morning Glory (a type of spinach) Vietnam- very heavily populated with this The problem: sometimes people aren’t buying the rice the farmers are growing, because they would rather spend top dollar to buy cherished rice because it has a better taste

Terrace agriculture- requires enormous amounts of agriculture- you can’t plow the soils because of their composition, UNLESS underwater

Labor Intensive Farming • Places like Southeast Vietnam, along the Mekong River from Thailand to Cambodia, the soil has a really high sulfur content • The people there engage in “floating markets” where they show/sell what they need like fish, vegetables, melon • Water is so heavily polluted, so you have to collect your own water and integrated pest detection to have the farms be successful • Use every inch of land to make it the most efficient • Pigs are used to produce meat and energy o Run pig waste into water- methane is stored in bags that can be used to heat homes, gas for the burner to cook foods Fish raising such as carp and tilapia is also a very sustainable way of healthy living Families that don’t have the pigs must rely on wood to heat their homes Herbal medicine is helping out small farmers, that way they can sell their “drug” on the black market and make some extra cash since the prescription price is so high -Also growing snake fish to make a profit

Population Issues- shown through the population pyramid, which breaks up men and women, and sort them on a scale by age

Mali- represents an extreme population growth very fast, with a poor resource base to hold it together • Desertification is undermining agricultural stability • Low per capita income is causing the continuation of the poverty cycle → poverty trap scenarios • Climate change is causing unpredictable weather (flooding vs. drought) • Don’t have the money to invest in jobs or in the youth & their education • “Kleptocracy” → exist to enrich those in and around government rather than improving the country through political means

Nigeria- Experiencing record urbanization into the capital, Legos • In Legos, in 2008, there were 10 million people, and the city had as large of a budget as a large US hospital… • Another 600,000 are arriving every year, and with that little money, the support and infrastructure are not there

Tanzania- heavily indebted, population growth has continued to accelerate • “Osterity” – structural adjustment programs leaving less money for public education, an increase in fees for the school, $30 a year + books + uniforms & families with 6 or 7 or even 1 or 2 children can’t afford it • Girls are the first ones to get pulled out because the money isn’t there • So here, literacy rates actually went backwards, and women were less educated than there were before

Pakistan- starting to stabilize their population, but a large amount of it is still very young… so what makes them different from the above? They have nuclear missiles • The country is torn apart by poverty and very divided (top 1% rule with elites definitely applies) • Many do not have access to schools, families can only afford to send their children to “filter” schools to organizations like the Taliban • Water-deprived- heavily dependent on the Indus River and are fighting with India over Kashmir because it is the head of this body of water • DANGEROUS POPULATION- when you have a lot of people in their late teens, early twenties, with no jobs or access to education… what do they do? Terrorism

Russia- population is all over the place sometimes bulging out and then sometimes hugging the line- due to its history • 20-40 million people died in WWII, which explains why there are more older women, another 20 million died in gulags, very brutal period underneath the Stalin regime • Why more middle-aged women vs. men? Alcoholism • In the 90’s, the male life expectancy was mid-50s • Doctors were making $15/month, and people were growing gardens in their backyards and having to live off that

Italy- youth unemployment here is very high • There is a lower retirement age, lots of healthcare, high taxes, and they cannot support this structure given their current demographics Spain- young people trying to get jobs- they can’t. They are realizing that they should have learned German, and are trying to learn it because that’s where the jobs are… now the best, brightest young people are leaving the country

United States- age distribution= best of the best • We really don’t face a demographic problem, it is more political • Immigration is helping us keep the youth pop up • Market crash, people cant afford to have children because they’re too expensive • Youth unemployment in the US

Other examples like the US: Sweden, Norway, and France even bribes their women to have kids- so many benefits, ie// they will pay for a cleaning lady and cooking lady to come in and help out

Video Notes from Friday Topic of Movie: Microfinance In Bangladesh, there are over 120 million people- half of them live in extreme poverty, with an average life expectancy of 55 years & 1 out of 5 die before their 5th birthday • Education is very limited • Women are generally home bodies, very little outside interaction

Gramean Bank founded by Muhammad Yunus has started something called microfinancing or microcredit in order to respond to the daily problems of hunger. The Gramean Bank has lent over 2 billion dollars to over 2 million people and it basically gives credit for self employment.

South Africa- has the microcredit organization- the Small Enterprise Foundation (SEF) and they have given loans to over 5,000 people Generally, men go into town to find work, and then they will send very little money home to the wife & children • Men only go visit once/twice a year because it is too costly and it affects family life • 94% of the loans are made towards women… why? o Women are more likely to pay back the loans, more responsible o With women, most of the money goes into feeding their children, getting them education through schooling, medicine o Versus men who spend it on more frugal things- gambling, drugs SEF uses the 5 member groups to make up the money for collateral, and this way they can support and encourage one another SEF users repay their loans at 98% SEF stays alive through international funders

Bolivia- the majority of Bolivians go to La Paz in order to find work… but it does not exist • The main problem? No access to capital Banco Sol changed that- it now has over 80,000 members and it is functioning with no subsidies as a for-profit, commercial bank Banco Sol led banks in the area on return for assets • HOWEVER, it charges a rate 1/3 higher than most commercial banks and loaners feel that the interest is too high… but if is only about 5 pesos on a 100 peso loan

India- embracing self-reliance through microcredit • It is viewed as an ECONOMIC and POLITICAL right • In India, the textile production was outsourced… so what to do? o Survival= self-employment especially when 80% + are illiterate and poor o Women were always perceived as wives, mothers, daughters, not entrepreneurs o Save a Bank= 60,000 members and 3 million dollars in assets o WILL NOT accept outside help or support, because they feel if a lot of capital is irresponsibly spent, the company will fumble with being given so much money

Class discussion Sept 23rd:

Empowering women through education: Gramean bank tries to change the social, cultural, and economic superiority • Women are given money, more independence, respect, power, changing the household power balance, and it is changing fertility rates for two reasons o 1. Women aren’t just valued for the amount of children they can have, they are seen for what they can do o 2. Women are becoming so involved in their businesses only time for maybe 4 kids versus 8 When fertility rates become more stable, so does the country. The women are investing into the children and into their future, which is also the future of the country. Out of every 100 rupees earned, 92 goes back into the home (like schooling, food) vs. out of every 100 rupees men earn, 42 goes back into the home… why? Men are off drinking, gambling, sleeping with prostitutes

Positives from household economy investments • It is a bottom-up approach to development • Better education and more highly skilled citizens= better economies with a greater agricultural output o In Bangladesh, women with more money are pushing more for their daughters to go to school, because the moms want to give their daughters what they didn’t have. o Gramean bank children are not only finishing primary school, but going to secondary school, some are even going to college and becoming doctors and lawyers o Most people borrowing are women, making stronger communities, businesses are working together and promoting each other Many women who live in poor, rural areas, not a lot of outside social interaction- staying in the house, but the Gramean bank is forcing them to socialize It is changing their views of the world and bringing people together and talking about their situation= VERY POWERFUL

For-profit microcredit The negatives- a lot of for profit microcredit organizations have given microcredit an overall bad name • When bigger banks saw that banks like Banco del Sol were making a profit out of these tiny loans, they wanted in on that too. So banks went out into poor poor areas heavily advertising what they were doing because they wanted to make a quick profit • This ended with high rates, high defaults and debt, land loss, and the suicide rate increased • Very sloppy practices for the desire to make fast cash vs. Banco del Sol- for profit, lower rates, education training and knowledge

Mohammad Yunus started his not for profit bank and made it owned by its users, so there would be less objections, yet still they exist, the religious and cultural traditionalists complained Men saw this new power balance and complained that women were not having dinner ready on time and that they were becoming less obedient

Sawa- microcredit institution in India turned also into a political institution • Pushing for women’s rights, access of lenders in market space, working on domestic violence from husbands within the home, getting a womens name on a property deed…. Education and rise in economy reflect off each other

Disease Ecology- disease agents- least complex to most complex organisms 1. Prions 2. Virus 3. Bacteria 4. Protozoa 5. Helmiths- macroparasites 6. Fungi

Prions- not a huge threat to humans- seen in mad cow disease, kooroo in Papau New Guinea, MAJOR HEALTH issue- how were they getting it? By eating the Central Nervous System. Cows were being fed dead sheep which have shrabies through soil and manure, and the tribe in Papa New Guinea practiced the tradition of honoring the dead by eating them. No cure- it kills you Self-replicating protein, wreaks havoc on the nervous system It can also be contracted when cows are not slaughtered properly

Virus- protein package plus DNA/RNA- injects genetic material into the cell • Common cold, influenza, HIV, smallpox, polio- places like Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan still have cases of polio • DNA virus (chickenpox) goes into the nucleus and therefore mutation occurs at slower rates • RNA viruses (flu) mutate at extremely high rates making it much harder to deal with… this is why you constantly get shots every year for the flu vs. one shot for chicken pox and then maybe a booster and you’re set for life. • Problem with antivirals like Tamaflu? A) very expensive B) virus can mutate very quickly making it resistant to antiviral • Not a living organism

Bacteria- living, single-cell organism, prokaryotic kingdom, no membrane bound nuclei meaning free living • Appendix theory- source of recolonization when good bacteria in the gut is wiped out • Sick/ deadly bacteria= tuberculosis (1 in 3 people carry it) MRSA staff infection, cholera, ecoli, bacterial meningitis which attacks extremities first • Black Plague- too the human 100+ years to recover from it • How to treat it? Antibiotics- Sir Alexander Fleming was doing experiments, left for a family vacation, left his experiment out and discovered that you can kill bad bacteria with penicillin • Now however bacterias are coming resistant to antibiotics Protozoan- From the Eukaryote class, single-cell, membrane-bound • Malaria, cryptosporidium- attacked with chlorine survive in cyst form- clean drinking water

Helmiths- multicellular parasites (hookworms from people walking barefoot and then stepping in feces)

Continuing on with population jazz

China- China’s population pyramid points to a lot of ups and downs • Cultural Revolution- took place in China’s history under Mao, educated people imprisoned or pushed into farmwork, which was a bad idea considering they had no idea how to farm so it produced very bad yields • Therefore, hunger and starvation took place, a decrease in population • One Child Policy- While China does not put families in prison for having a second child, they do make their life a lot harder, as in cutting subsidies, etc making the possibility of many children available only to the wealthy • Female infanticide took place (aborting female babies) because they wanted their child to be a boy because they are more highly valued • Present-day though, because of this practice it is very difficult for a male to find a wife- that or they don’t marry because they don’t want to give up their career and neither do the women • China has increased 8% in economic growth… Economic threat → Chinese women in their 20’s? They have the pick of the litter, and they want their man to have a house, to be a property owner, and the Chinese housing market has absolutely exploded… however this huge real estate bubble can’t last forever, it will burst and put the whole world into a recession • The USA borrows a lot of money from China, that would lead to turmoil for the US, but also the global sphere • China= huge population 43 million boys vs. 39 million girls (0 to 4 range)

India- clear example of the result of population momentum • 64 million boys vs. 54 million girls in the 0 to 4 age range • Here, a dowry is paid, meaning that women must give over their wealth when marriage comes • In India, many are engaging in selective abortions o The rate at which they are done so is higher in higher castes → this is because is the higher castes, must have larger dowries, greater amount of wealth is lost, and while it is easier for women to move up, it is very difficult for men to do so India also has a lot of resource problems like water that affect its population growth

Tanzaania- 4.3 million boys vs. 4 million girls ( 0 to 4 age range) so we’re working with a much smaller population • However, it is growing very quickly, so what can be done? • Realized fertility- the number of children women are having VS. Desired fertility- the number of children women want to have When realized fertility is harder than desired, that means there is a need for contraceptives, helping with planned parenthood… BUT it’s expensive However, the literacy rates are so low that even if people have access to the contraceptives, they don’t know how to use them

Education becomes difficult for several reasons: • Cultural/ Societal view- women were having abortions versus taking birth control, because culturally, if you were on birth control and not married, you were viewed a slut; a filthy whore • Religious institutions against it- fighting to keep it out • Cost= expensive • Boys are going to school rather than girls, they aren’t getting the education they need

How do we bring education? • Educated women in the community need to teach, and spread information • International aid o Family planning in the 1960’s sponsored by the government was an effort in order to prevent communism, but then Reagan’s administration took power by 1980 and he put an end to that

OR what if we are in a place like Mali, when desired fertility is LOWER than the realized fertility? Why is the number so high? • In farming communities, the extra hands are needed, maybe even simply to just bring water, so if an irrigation system was brought in, or pipes, that would solve the issue, also working on the education factor

Motives that would lead to having lots of children: • Lack of education • Fertility from a cultural perspective, there you are highly respected, honored, valued, if you can give your husband lots of babies • No Social Security meaning that if you want to be taken care of when you are old, you better have a surviving male child to do it, because your daughter will go off and get married and leave So what needs to be done is change the idea that you’re identity is given to you at birth, but modernity is changing that- if you are born a peasant, you do not have to be a peasant farmer when you die, you can be great Modernity- you can construct your own future… however, lots of people find that terrifying and the education is not available to let them act as informed citizens

What can we do? • Fair trade organizations- they are giving women identities through giving them a career • Giving women control over $$$$ o Change in power/ dynamics o Men control the money and the resources and own the land, etc so that makes the women completely dependent on the males

Continuation of disease: 6. Fungi- Usually this is not a big issue, but in the past year, there have been several drugs with fungal pathogens that have caused people to become extremely sick and die • Appearance of kyrptocaucusgadi in the Northwest & Canada • Climate change, people moving around, able to grow in higher altitudes • This issue with this new fungal pathogen is that instead of attacking sick people, it attacks healthy ones, and the drug treatments for it do not always work

Host – any organism that can provide a home for a disease agent – can harbor a particular pathogen

Reservoir – where that disease is cycling through • i.e. Plague, reservoir was rats in central Asia, Southwestern United States (ground-dwelling rodents)

Ways diseases can be transmitted: 1. Human to human (kisses) 2. Environment (water supply & drinking from it) 3. Airborne (coughing/sneezing or if land is disturbed)

Vector – disease agent that must feed on an animal. That animal passes it to next organism. 1. Vector (anthropoids, ticks, mosquitos, sand flies) gets into salivary gland 2. Vector goes into hose 3. Causes diseases such as malaria (disease resides in mosquito 7-9 days before becoming infectious towards humans) There is also human to animal to human, making the animal an intermediate host; it cannot go directly from human to human For one parasite, it enters the water, go into the snail, into the water again, and then contracts to the human being

Diseases can change the host behavior, can make a rodent not afraid of a cat, the cat will then eat the rodent (because it is not running away) Humans can get it in their brain, get in accidents a lot more, because it inhibits their perception, fear sensing

4. Zoinosis- disease, natural reservoir= animals, then something happens that causes it to enter humans and it become quite lethal- a) become sick 2) die Avian influenza birds- humans or cowpox turned to smallpox

Natural Nidis- refers to the ecology of the disease It is all the ingredients that are needed for a disease agent to survive Needs: a population of rodents

Temperate climates → cold, arid areas
Flea- to pass the disease on

(Where the disease is endemic) Outside of this type of transmission is epidemic

Sometimes disease agents mutate, Bubonic Plague- Neumonic Plague, coughing area, went person to person

Environmental Changes are resetting our relationship with some of these disease changes

A) Habitat destruction- when humans enter a place, it links colonizing diseases with the world, like in Bolivia with Machupo- the slopply kept corn resulted from mouse having access to it– infection B) Sterilizing environment- when using antibiotics, sometimes ruining the good bacteria in your body C) Global Warming- allowing crop disease to move up in latitude D) Human travel- species moving around the world unintentionally, like the tiger mosquito that came to the US on a shipment from Japan to TX E) Human trade: really important, like the aids natural reservoir was in chimpanzees, if it spread only to a few people, maybe killed a family, but by the 1950’s we are escaping the village scene due to tourism, trucking trade, young men are the ones moving, bringing the disease, prostitution, Sex tourism, drug cultural, sexual revolution F) Increased population density and becoming more urban, a need to put money in infrastructure

Today, antibiotic resistance is a huge problem… what is driving this? • Misuse of antibiotics- carelessness vs. no education, antibiotics effecting non-targeted bacteria in the body, making you feel better faster, so you stop taking them, don’t finish the dosage • Poverty- people cannot afford to buy 20 pills of antibiotics, maybe only 5, Example: Worst strain of TB originated from a Russian prison, TB everywhere, no money to treat it, nasty virus, lots of deaths and it resulted in a public health disaster • Over prescription and overuse of antibiotics • Used & tested on animals and livestock (which is not regulated) as you as you develop an animal antibiotics, it can be used, no need to test them. Farmers are always giving their animals antibiotics- incorporating it with their food- wanting to prevent the disease, that way an outbreak doesn’t happen that would kill 90% of the animals, because they are in such tight quarters

Societal Response- how can we get protein & meats in better way, they do not want to eat antibiotic treated pigs and chickens. How do we keep ahead of rapidly evolving bacteria? • Increase in research, spend more time developing tools for everyday needs

Noninfectious Diseases: these have to do with endocrine disruptors in our body and result in cancers, type 2 diabetes, etc • Evaluation of many chemicals- Bisphenol A, is what we are putting into our body really affecting our reproduction rates? Is it really harmful? What about phthalates in our plastics?

Difference between U.S. and Europe? Precautionary principle. In Europe, if you have lots of reports and beliefs that harm will be caused, they are going to act on that 90/95% conviction, whereas the United States will stall until they have their last 5% proved before making action

Endocrine disruptors affect development (specifically sexual development) • It is believed that many of these endocrine disruptors are found in certain chemicals in plastics, yet the EPA kept putting off and putting off investigating these chemicals, and that was likely because of business lobbying the government… oh politics • Lots of money was being put into campaigning against these new regulations because it would inhibit businesses- causing them to change their products • Many papers tried to use investigating journalism to expose the EPA and NTD, in this case the newspaper was against bisphenol A • However, it is getting harder and harder for media to expose this, it is becoming less diverse, newspapers are struggling to survive… content vs. opinion

Cancer- non-infectious disease caused by a mutation in cells, the division mechanism is disturbed, most common in areas where division occurs frequently • Cancer is not caused by a single mutation, but many, and the risk of cancer increases with age • About 20% of cancers have a strong genetic link

Type 2 Diabetes- becoming very prevalent in the US… I wonder why… • Portion size- THERE IS NO PORTION CONTROL IN THIS COUNTRY • Lack of exercise, plus we are driving everywhere, not even walking • Cheapness of high fructose corn syrup • Entertainment is becoming very passive, not active • Work isn’t as labor intensive, sitting in a cubicle • We are so busy, we are so caught up in things, we don’t have time to take care of ourselves

Reductionism- toxicology, the study of single chemicals to see if they are safe, and if they aren’t, at what level does it cause them to be unsafe? Synergy- higher doses can be dangerous and have negative effects like high blood sugar, chemicals acting together become more dangerous

Let’s revisit the demographic transition model:

Because of the green section and these huge growth rates, there was a mobility transition, which resulted in: 1) Rural → rural: in rainforest regions like Indonesia, Brazil- moving from rural regions to those of sparsely settled land 2) Rural → urban: like in China during the Cultural Revolution, Green Revolution 3) International migrations (sometimes illegally)

Urban areas are growing for 2 reasons: 1) PUSH factors- reasons that are pushing them away from rural to the urban, for example, subsidizing the farm can only happen for so long, if you are out in the middle of nowhere, not a lot of access to markets to sell your goods, running out of water, climate change, conflict and violence 2) PULL factors- reasons that attract the person to the urban area, pursuit of better opportunities like education, the promise of employment, consumer culture & materialism- want more and more and more and more and they feel they must do this to be happy

Scale of migration= huge in Asian & African cities (over 5% growth rate every year, which equals a doubling time of FOURTEEN YEARS) • The problem? There are no resources, infrastructure is awful, the schools are virtually nonexistent, not a good education, the government is full of corruption- kleptocrasy- and they use their position to enrich themselves

Case Study: Brazil • Brazil’s rapid economic growth did not start until about the year 2000 • Let’s look at what happened in Curitiba under Jamie Lerner as mayor • To him, important city factors were: o Mobility o Sustainability o Identity He focused on turning unusable land into usable land, turned the land into parks, which increased the property value, with overflooding, instead of putting in concrete controls on them, let them flood naturally with the parks How to trim the grass? With sheep obviously In the slums, for every kilo of trash collected, people got a kilo of fruits/veges Destroying the slums- moving them to newly built homes

Movie: City of Dreams- Brazil http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRD3l3rlMpo

Overall, you need leaders, and not just leaders, but leaders with vision. For example, in the USA- Occupy Wallstreet movement= huge fail because no leaders, so yes, even grassroots need leadership and structure You need a view of people first rather than business, and you cant just put one group of people ahead, it has to be everyone

Instant gratification- this is the kind of planning that the US does, basically it solves the symptoms, not the cold. We put another lane on the highway to decrease traffic, but more people use it, so we increase traffic, cities are becoming less livable


Delayed return- not seeing instant changes and success, but rather in the future. First day of bus implementation in Curitibia- 25,000 riders… not so great, but today? Over 2 million and the busses aren’t even subsidized. Parks paid for themselves by increasing property value

Two big ideas here: 1. Idea of a sense of coresponsibility- helping others to build skills, like in the movie- they were building their own houses, investing in their education and skills trainings 2. Idea of systems fixing- thinking about things holistically (like we do in admissions) fixing the whole system versus singular problems, multimodel thinking systems, longterm

Planning in the US- transportation is based on the best way to move people and goods efficiently, no coordination in the US 90% is spent of roads 8% on public transportation and 2% on bike paths, greenlanes, etc

Continuation of Movie Discussion of City of Dreams, Brazil….

The three things Lerner talked about that were essential for a city are:

1) Mobility- externalities, with cars, lots of space, consuming lots of fossil fuel, not a lot of oil, so by adding on road extensions, we are just attracting more cars, more traffic, more congestion, etc When people 1 in 6 people are living in a slum (it’s predicted to be 1 in 4 by 2020) cars for transportation aren’t feasible. This is why Lerner turned to walkways, bikes, and buses Example today// new bikerack on Franklin that is taking up parking spaces

2) Sustainability- managing the environment and our natural resources- in Brazil, they let the flooding occur naturally instead of putting in cement canals, so sustainably, are we creating sufficient jobs? Are we being environmentally sustainable? Is there social equality in this? 3) Identity- having a sense of place, feeling connected to where you are and not wanting to leave, leads to an improvement in the future

Let’s look at some developing countries: • Bogota, Colombia- trying to follow the path of Curitibia • Quito, Ecuador- the infrastructure and development patterns have already formed, so it is really difficult to alter them present-day • Legos- fastest growing city, their whole city operates on the budget of a large American hospital, people are evading taxes, rich will get fresh water, poor have to pay a huge price for it, 40% of the poor’s income goes to buying water o HUGE # of people living in slums, no running water, picking through the garbage o Manchester- large number of people living in poor places with pathogens- recipe for major epidemic

But what about in the USA? We had a great urban developmental sprawl after WWII- people want their own space, moving out of cities of high population to less densely populated areas. People didn’t want to be seeing cement everywhere, wanted grass and fields As suburbs expand, need more infrastructure, more roads, etc When you are living in suburbs, you have to go farther to get things- food, clothes, medicine & this creates a greater dependence on cars, plus you probably work in the city, get your electricity and water from the city

What about the Lost Children of Rockdale County? In Conyers, parents did not have time for their children, they were commuting, they were working, kids left at home in the suburbs. In order to go places, the kids had to be driven somewhere, no where to walk or hang out or go to a music dance/ sports game whereas in the city, it is very easily accessible According to Professor Gangi, “suburbs suck the lifeblood out of cities” -tax money, real estate pricing, water, electricity, and so on

Once again according to Professor Gangi, “government has massively subsidized sprawl. Do you think people could afford these 10,000 square foot houses if the government wasn’t running electricity to them and water and building roads for them, and in turn raising everyone else’s rates?”

How has the government done this? Prof. G. says it wasn’t an accident 1) Mechanization- homes before were built by skilled craftsmen, very expensive, to buy your home, 50% down upfront was required, but the government wanted to reduce pricing, need more housing & needed to do it a) quickly b) cheaply so bye-bye to architecture jobs and hello cookie-cutter houses a. Leads to homogenous building and inefficiency- same house in Louisiana and Minnesota- not a good idea climates wise, using heat absorbing material vs. not 2) Split-Incentive- for homebuilders, it is the simple salary they are looking for, the most square footage they can build for the cheapest price, and they don’t care once they hand the buyer the keys Continuation of the role of the government in this whole idea of regional planning, cities vs. suburbs, etc.

Land use planning has made out nation a very sedentary one- we are very dependent on cars, and the government has directly subsidized this by building roads and indirectly by extending the lines of water and electricity

In the case Ohio vs. Ambler Realty, the town of Euclid said that it wouldn’t allow for industrial building in designated residential areas, court rules against them on the basis of exclusionary zoning= permissible

In North Carolina, in order to do something innovative on the local level, the local government must first go through the general assembly, and get their permission, but it is not the same like this over the country; the power of the local government wields is very different from state to state

Zoning- results in making land categories for offices, industrial areas, commercial, residential, and it has created a patchwork landscape that requires roads, other countries (many of them in Europe) have inclusionary zoning meaning that alright, the first level must be shops, but levels 2-5 can be residential

Local Governments- where citizens are directly spending their money • Within these local governments, a developer could come and would be allowed to negotiate with the town- what do we need to do to make the town more pedestrian friendly? • Driving sprawl- utility decisions are supposed to be “non-political,” but it appears as though that is just not the case • For instance Town A is here ———————————– City A is here o The government needs to connect water/ electricity from the city to the town, and then along the dotted line, people are going to start tapping in to those resources, expanding it even more Education is also a huge driver of mobility- there can be a huge prize difference of the same house on opposite sides of the street due to school zoning

State Governments- drive transportation policies in congruency with the federal government, they decide which projects will get priority Then, they will raise money to fund their own priorities, like in NC in 1989 when officials created the Highway Trust Fund from money from gas tax, car registration fees, license fees, etc.

Three goals of the HTF: 1) Put an outer loop around every big city 2) 4-lane road within every 10 miles 3) Pave a lot of unpaved roads

Model for the US cities is very static, looks like circle lines in a cutdown tree- going out and it expands and expands, but Professor Gangi feels as though this is “inefficient” & “stupid” Politicians see this as a development infrastructure tool, helping them win popularity, yes we will save you by adding all these extra lanes. We are going to create jobs, etc. They are very powerful lobbyists here- developers, housing, and public transportation is not well-favored.

High Transportation Fund- makes about $1 billion in revenue, $5 million allocated for public transportation… don’t want to deal with poor people and minorities coming to the mall, to their businesses, etc.

Portland Oregon- they have a light-rail because of their governor Tom MccCaul was able to push through Act 100 through the General Assembly. Companies wanted to create a bypass around Portland, citizens said NO! so okay what will we do? And the found the light-rail as their alternative infrastructure solution. The increase in property value along the light-rail and the property tax it is generating → helping to pay for light rail

Federal Government has wanted to stimulate affordable housing, so they passed the National Housing Act, banks could loan up to 93% of what the house is worth • After WWII, GI Bill stimulus- get veterans into homes, we cant afford to stick them in cities, let’s put them in the suburbs • Lots of tax benefits for home-owners, they can claim the interest on their home • City dwellers however are renting vs. buying… why? o Worrying about having to sell it later on o Will people keep up other apartments o HOA, physical structure kept up?

After WWII, the government really started to favor the idea of suburbia: • Not only was it a good place to house veterans returning from war, • It was a good way to get women out of the workforce so the returning war vets would then have more job options

The Allocation of Transportation Dollars • In an act known as ISTEA, which follows the 80/20 rule o 80% of funds go to roads o 20% of funds go to public transportation such as light rail, bicycle paths, busses, etc

Where does the issue lie within the government? • Rural states like Montana have the same representation in the Senate as very urbanized states like New York, New Jersey, etc • This reflects in the political geography of the house: o Urban centers= Democrats o 1st tier suburbia= Battleground o Rural, exerts= Republicans

Social force, important innovator of sprawl: BANKS • Red-lining: dividing neighborhoods by minority- don’t let them borrow money, so either no mortgage, or subprime mortgages (extremely high rates) This is illegal, banks try not to get caught, but they do o Example: $10,000 down on a $200,000 house, banks want to be able to foreclose on a house and make a profit, get their money back, they cant do that in a minority neighborhood that has gone down hill where the house has actually lost value So how does this affect sprawl…? • Results in something called “white flight” • Caucasians leave, go to the suburbs, buy all this land and these big houses • So because of this, banks had abandoned these inner city neighborhoods as worthless… but then something happened…

Small banks started selling their mortgages to larger banks who then sold them to investors, the investors needed more people… so where to go? Start looking for minorities who live in already paid-off homes, telling them they can mortgage them, get their kids nicer things, buy a new car, etc and welcome to the market crash of 2008

Consequences of this low-density development: a) it needs lots of resources to keep it going-→ these large houses require A LOT b) air quality that is connected to driving vehicles everywhere, in 2003 NC did a study: 34%- SUVs, 33%- heavy trucks, 18%- cars, 12%- power plants What they found was ground level ozone, O3 molecules are extremely dangerous for your lungs- they destroy lung tissues, create scarring, huge asthma rates spike up, overall, it’s a very insufficient use of fossil fuels c) water pollution- cutting forests= huge impact on water, we are building more and more on our land, and water is not penetrating the soil • We have very weak storm water rules, so rainwater is sent off to the streets where it is toxic with chemicals from automobiles (car oils) tire decomposition, this is then pushed out to sea- causes the extremes of flooding and drought o In Georgia, the largest irrigated crop? Grass. Here, the amount of water used per month on a lawn is what a family of 4 uses in a city in a YEAR, and they use chemical fertilizers, and pesticides o POWER PLANTS- require a huge amount of water, need water to act as a coolant Social Costs: • With all this sprawl, family life suffers, and there is a weaker community structure • Parents are away from home, because they must commute and the kids are left alone • TV dinners, bad eating habits, eating alone and separate • People aren’t coming together to share a meal, and the parents don’t resist it, because they are too tired • Rather than emphasizing a family unit, there are these huge house with gigantic, private rooms, they don’t facilitate togetherness • Conyers= very hard to walk places→ lose that familiarity because there is no public space, and a lack of communication • Church is really the only place with a sense of community

Three basic types of parenting: • AUTHORITARIAN parent- mostly found in immigrant families, strong patriarchy, demand a lot from their kids- exchange success for love and respect, much like the Chinese “tiger mom” o Either produces high achieving, or psychologically damaged as love is used as a weapon

  • Authoritative parent- very invested in the child, child is not a friend, there is communication, child has boundaries, constantly love their child, but it takes a lot of time and commitment

• Laisse-faire parent- detached from child, don’t spend time with their kids, love= materialism, see their kids as friends, little enforcement of boundaries, damaging to the education process, parents do not want to discipline the kids

Why is all this happening? • People are working longer hours, they are working 45-60 mins away from their children and homes, spending 28-30 days a year in a car, time lost with family and friends • Takes a special time of relationship to talk to your kids about sex versus pop culture’s version of sex, if you don’t have that relationship- very difficult

Continuation of Conyers… Life in the exurbs • Bid draw on consumerism, this idea that we have substituted what real parenthoods is with material gifts, if we give our kids the right brand name clothes, that will give them success in popularity and friendship • Out political justice system= harsh and bias on minorities and low-income o Look at DJ- stabbing people and kidnapping them, living in a nice mansion, versus his African American friend locked up These kids are looking for attention, and they feel that the only way to get it is through extreme behavior, these young women (girls really) are feeling so pressured, feel as if being raped is their fault

People who believe in classical economics are people who believe in the market, that all people are rational and have high goals • End of traditional agriculture, the freedom to escape from farming o Then people decided to form group& engage in tribal-like activities • College Sports • Greek System • Gangs • Church groups

There has been a lack of connection within the parents and the children. The parents are blaming the pop culture for influencing their children, they are blaming minorities, blaming the teachers and the school system, instead of blaming themselves

The youth in Conyers felt alienated, so they look to inner-city children (like through their music in order to find an identity. Their identity is formed around clothes, status, guys

These two power forces: • Male to male competition→ all the girls wanted to be with the 5 guys that had the BMWs, the money, the status, the power • Female choice- the promiscuity takes over, not really a choice, their parents were strict, don’t want to be like that with their kids, but instead of imposing fewer boundaries, none are imposed at all, and children need boundaries City and Regional Planning • No networks or public space or downtown • No grandparents, friends, uncles, cousins around to help keep an extra eye on what’s going on- allowing these young kids to spin off in all these different directions, having 100s of sex partners • Problems with where they lie-suburbs are throwing down homes • Networks build stronger communities and help to create a sense of identity o When youre moving around a lot, you don’t invest a lot of time in getting to know your neighbors

Smart Growth Planning Make public space! • Farmer’s markets • Plaza with little boutiques • Mix of commercial and residential • Create places & events to engage the youth • Recreation & community centers • Alternative infrastructures- sidewalks & bikelanes -Greater mobility for children • Creating parks • Investing in reducing crime • Beautification projects and community gardens • Community events- 5ks, festivals

We must get involved in planning and with the structure of cities • Their has to be an allowance for passive exercise But only 12%-16% of people vote in their local elections

earth_sciences | Environment

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