Efficient Organizing For Managers

How To Establish An Organization Structure For Effective Management

Developing an organization structure is the work a manager performs to identify and group the work to be done so it can be accomplished effectively by people.

An organization is a design of the number and kinds of positions, along with corresponding duties and responsibilities required to achieve or exceed objectives.

The steps in developing an organizational structure are the following:

1. Review program objectives.

2. Design each position so a short label describes its main responsibility.

3. To each position, assign clear-cut duties, responsibilities, and authority so each position holder will have freedom to act.

4. Establish line and staff positions that will enable the manager to realize the advantages of both centralization and decentralization.

5. Establish each position on the basis of the knowledge and skills likely to be found in an individual.

6. Design each position so each position holder can make maximum use of his knowledge and skills.

7. Design positions so decision-making authority is as close as possible to the scene of action.

8. Give managerial responsibility to as many positions as possible.

The manager must be guided by the following principles in developing an organization structure:

1. Productivity increases as the work performed is directed toward understood and accepted objectives.

2. The more specialized the work assigned to an individual within the limits of human tolerance, the greater the potential for efficient performance.

3. Logically arranged work tends to produce the greatest accomplishment and the highest personal satisfaction.

4. The more people in an organization, the more work they will find to fill their time.

5. The more people each manager can effectively manage, the smaller the total number the organization will require to attain its objectives.

6. The fewer the levels of supervision, the smaller the number of people required to achieve organization objectives.

7. When supervising two or more functions, products, or geographic units, a manager tends to show differing emphasis.

8. The early characteristics of an organization tend to persist in later organization forms.

A manager can choose among the following types of organization structure:

1. Functional Structure: a form of organization in which work of the same kind is grouped together to form the primary components of an enterprise.

2. Divisionalized Structure: a form of organization in which work is grouped in terms of the end results to be accomplished by the work done.

In improving an organization, the manager must take the following steps:

1. Study the existing organization,

2. Define the organization's objectives and other plans.

3. Develop an ideal organization.

4. Evaluate the existing organization in terms of the Ideal.

5. Plan organization improvement.

6. Implement the plan.

7. Maintain control

Organizing For Effective Management

Organizing is the obligation a manager fulfills to arrange and assign the work to be accomplished so it can be done effectively by the employees.

The activities involved in organizing are the following:

1. Establishing organizational values;

2. Setting organizational structures;

3. Making position descriptions;

4. Setting position qualifications;

5. Setting relationships;

6. Staffing (Recruiting, Selecting, Orienting, Employing, & Training).

There are two types of organizations: 1) Functional and 2) Divisional. Functional is an organization where each of the principal functions of manufacturing and marketing are separate organization units. Divisional is when each of the organization units is responsible for both the manufacturing and the marketing of a product or a family of products.

Some organizations are divided into profit centers. A profit center is a responsibility center in which financial performance is measured in terms of profit. The two kinds of profitability measurements are:

1. The measurement of personal performance - the focal point is on how well the manager is performing. This measurement is utilized for planning, integrating, and controlling the day-to-day actions of the profit center, and as a device for providing the proper motivation to the manager.

2. The measurement of economic performance - the focal point is on how good the profit center is performing as an economic body.

The following are the principles to apply in organizing:

1. Unity of Command - Each person has only one boss. Confusion is eliminated. Work is done without function.

2. Span of Control - One manager can handle only 4 to 7 subordinates. Distance limits the effectiveness of control. Time (number of persons involved) limits the effectiveness of control.

3. Homogeneous Assignment - Similar work; Expertise; Feeling of usefulness.

4. Delegation - Manager has a job of his own; Chance to use initiative; Feeling of importance; “Principles of management” cannot be denied.

How To Create Job/Position Descriptions And Establish Position Qualifications For Effective Management

A Job/Position Description is the end product of a job analysis. It is the record of the job facts. The well-written job description contains short, factual statements. It is in a clear, concise, easy-to-understand language that accurately describes the job. The format of a job description must have the following characteristics:

1. The job being described should be positively identified by a meaningful job title that reflects the job duties and responsibilities.

2. The job should state both the geographical location and the name of the particular organizational unit.

3. The level of the job in the organization should be indicated by identifying the position to which it reports and the position it supervises.

4. The purpose of the job and a summary of its duties should be noted in two or three brief sentences.

5. The major duties and responsibilities should be listed.

6. Any quantitative measures of position scope should be indicated.

A job description is a summary of the important facts about a particular job. It tells: 1) the duties, 2) how these duties are to be performed, 3) the skills needed to do the work, and 4) why the job is necessary - for example, how it ties in with the other jobs in the company.

Depending on the work to be done, a job description can be involved or simple. It is a written record of (1) the duties, (2) the responsibilities, and (3) the requirements of a particular job.

A description includes a summary of the significant facts pertaining to a job. These facts give the manager and the employee a general understanding of: (1) what the worker does, (2) how he does it, and (3) why he does it. They also indicate the skills and responsibilities involved and their relationship to other jobs in the plant.

“What is my job?” is the question which a job description should answer readily.

Keep in mind that a job description is concerned only with the basic requirements of the job, not how well a certain individual performs it.

Job Analysis

Job analysis is the process of determining by observation and study, and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required of the worker for successful performance and which differentiate the job from all others.

The following are the three sections in the analysis of any job:

1. The job must be accurately and completely distinguished.

2. The assignments of the job must be accurately and completely defined.

3. The essentials the job makes upon the employee for outstanding performance must be defined.

Mechanics of Job Analysis

Three things are necessary in making a job analysis for writing a job description. They are: (1) convincing management employees of its value, (2) preparing forms which make for easy recording of necessary facts, (3) collecting information about the job.

The amount of convincing which a manager needs to do depends on his type of work, on the organization of his business, and particularly, on the number of workers he employs.

He must tell his employees about his plan-individually or in small groups. He must point out how job descriptions can help each employee get more satisfaction from his work. He must emphasize the fact that the purpose of the description is to give the employees understanding of what they are expected to do. It is not designed to evaluate or speed up their work.

The second step is preparing forms. A manager will need five kinds of facts to develop a description: (1) facts which identify the job, (2) facts about the skills to do it, (3) facts about responsibilities, (4) facts about the effort demanded by it, and (5) facts about working conditions.

An easy way to pin down this information is to use a separate form for each type of facts. Look for a few moments at how the model job description forms below can be used to capture the necessary information. A manager may want to modify them to fit his own needs.

Form 1. Use it to capture identification facts, such as: (1) job title and job definition, (2) location of job, (3) number of employees on the job, (4) gender of employees, (5) salary, (6) working hours, and (7) miscellaneous facts.


Form 2. Use it to jot down facts about skill requirements such as: (1) educational requirements, (2) job experience, (3) relation to other jobs, (4) job duties, and (5) job knowledge.


Form 3. Use it to note facts about responsibilities, such as: (1) direction and group leadership, (2) business operation, (3) care of equipment, (4) safety and health of others, and (5) contact with public.


Form 4. Use it to pin down facts about the effort which the job demands.


Form 5. Use it to note the working conditions of the job.


The third step in job analysis is collecting information. Job facts are obtained by these various means:

1. Questionnaire

- employees


2. Interviews - supervisors

- one or more employees from each job

3. Observation

- short-cycle work


4. Combination of methods

The employee can supply much of the information the manager needs in writing the job description. The person working on a particular job knows his duties for the day. He also knows the responsibilities which go with those duties.

When establishing a new job, a manager should write the best descriptions and let an employee test it. The employee can help the manager revise the description to fit the conditions that have developed during the test period.

In a small plant, the interview method is the best way to get these facts. Talk directly to the employee about his job. Of course, it takes time to get the information, but an advantage is accuracy. The manager is more apt to get a true picture of what is involved in the job when he and the employee engage in a “give-and-take” discussion of it.

If the manager decides to use a conference with a group of employees who work on the same job or a questionnaire which employees fill out, he must keep in mind the fact that each has disadvantages. In the conference method, shy employees are not apt to speak up. And some of these reserved employees may know more about the job than the boisterous ones who dominate the meeting.

The questionnaire method has two disadvantages. First, the manager has to work out the questions and get them typed and second, even the best thought-out questions might not mean the same thing to each employee. The result, of course, is inaccurate and conflicting information.

Bear in mind that the information the manager collects about a job must be factual and accurate.

After the manager has collected the data from each employee on the suggested forms, he should read the forms to make sure that they tell the story as he sees them. Then he can begin to use the job description by:

1. Giving the employee a copy;

2. Making sure that the employee does the job as described; and

3. Using the description as a guide when hiring a new employee.

It also helps the applicant to determine whether he wants the job.

Job/Position Specification

A job/position specification is a written description about the skills and physical demands of a job. The following are the style guides when writing a job specification:

1. The statement should be definite and direct.

2. Any unnecessary embellishments or complicated sentences should be avoided except when they add materially to an understanding of details in the statement.

3. Where the worker on the job is the subject, the sentence should be written with this subject implied.

4. The statement must be positive and specific.

5. The present tense should be employed.

6. Those specifications which apply to occasional duties should be indicated accordingly so that the percent of time or frequency with which these specifications apply will not be overestimated.

7. Tools, machines, equipment, measuring devices, and the like must be identified specifically and the particular uses to which they are put must be described clearly.

8. References to job titles, other departments and sections, and so on, must always employ the exact title. These should follow the same capitalization procedure as in the job description.

9. Any conclusion or judgment derived from job facts must be followed up with a justification or a detailing of the facts on which the statement is based.

10. Arbitrary statements, such as requirements of company policy, established hiring requirements, safety regulations, and so on, should be specifically identified as such, so that they do not appear to be invented by the job specification writer without basis of fact given in the specification statement.

The Principle Section of a Job/Position Description

1. Heading

-Job Title - Date of Analysis

-Job Number or Code

-Relationships - Reports to whom, Supervises whom, Coordinates with whom -Exact location of operation, including Machine and Department number.

2. The Job Summary or Purpose

- Central Purpose

- Function - scope of the Job

3. The Duties Performed

- Job Facts

4. The Personal Requirements or Specifications

Contents of a Job Specification

1. Experience: months or years required for the average worker to attain a satisfactory level of proficiency on the job.

2. Education: Formal education required and that which may be gained through special training courses.

- Specific skills

3. Responsibility for Machinery, Tools, Equipment, Product or Materials:

-Value of the equipment or materials

-Actual possibility of the worker causing loss

4. Responsibility for the Work of Others:

-Supervision given or received

- Responsibility of the worker for maintaining production

- Responsibility for training other workers

- Complexity of the work being supervised

5. Responsibility for the Safety of Others:

-Responsibility of the worker in avoiding injury to other workers

- Teaching of safety precautions

6. Resourcefulness:


- Planning methods to get the best results

7. Mental, Visual, and Physical Effort: amount and degree, plus the frequency of the effort required on the job

8. Surroundings and Hazards:

-Degree of exposure to injury

- Amount of time exposed to injury

- Possibility of injury

- Possible seriousness of the injury

How To Establish Relationships For Effective Management

Developing relationships is the work a manager performs to establish the conditions necessary for the cooperative efforts of people.

A manager should differentiate between two kinds of relationships in an organization:

1. Line Relationships: the command affiliation of those persons & positions straightly accountable for obtaining goals and therefore approved with the authority required for that objective.

2. Staff Relationship: the affiliation of those positions and units accountable for information and service to those positions and units liable for straight fulfillment of goals.

Thus in an organization there are two types of staff. They are the following:

1. Personal staff: provides advice and service to one person;

2. Specialized staff: provides advice and service to the organization or a component thereof.

In line-staff relationships, line has the right to make final decisions related to objectives and the obligation to try to secure understanding and acceptance from staff. In the event of appeal by staff to a common superior, line has the obligation to accept the decision.

Staff has the obligation to try to understand, the obligation to accept, and the right of appeal to a common superior in the event of a disagreement with line.

How To Staff Your Organization For Effective Management

Staffing is the work a manager performs to find and choose a qualified person for each position to take action as a member of the organization.

The following are the steps a manager should follow in exercising the function of staffing:

1. Define requirements.

2. Find the best people available internally and/or externally.

3. Evaluate and have candidates screened through review of applications, short personal or phone interviews, and/or psychological testing against appropriate standards.

4. Have phone reference checks conducted to find out whether each final candidate's previous superiors would rehire him.

5. Conduct a final interview with the successful candidate.

6. Select each employee on the basis of his past performance. Be willing to recommend for promotion the qualified members of the team.

People chosen to come into the organization or selected for promotion from within the company will affect the future success of the enterprise. Thus, it is very important to train them.

Training and developing people is the work a manager performs to help people acquire the right and correct knowledge, attitudes, skills, habits, experiences, and values in order that they may be able to fulfill their duties and responsibilities. The development of people deserves as much effort as can be devoted to it.

All people can be developed. Self-development is best when managers develop on the job and good managers develop good potential managers, although management training is not a guarantee of success.

A manager must perform the following to train his people:

1. Orient all new employees.

2. Plan and conduct scheduled training to teach employees how to do their jobs.

3. Plan and conduct replacement and upgrading training.

4. Encourage employees to develop themselves. (a.) Let them know that the manager is available to counsel them about their self-development efforts. (b.) Recommend to them the names of specific courses and reading materials that may be available inside or outside of the organization. (c.) Encourage them to become active members in professional and community organizations in which they may be able to provide useful service while helping to develop their personal skills. (d.) Support the organization's management development program, if there is one, by fulfilling whatever managerial responsibilities one may have in it.

For a sound Management Development Program there should be the following: 1) an identifiable management system; 2) a sound organization; 3) an established compensation plan for managers who do management work.

The different ways of developing people include the following: good example, coaching, committee participation, formal education program, job rotation, and job enlargement/enrichment.

The techniques of developing people are the following:

1. Know the individual;

2. Know the job;

3. Appraise current performance;

4. Plan career path;

5. Counsel and coach;

6. Provide development opportunities.

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