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The Birth and Spread of Agriculture

  • The development and interactions of early agiricultural societies
  • Evidence - Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental arts.
  • Use centripetal and centrifugal forces
  • Evidence - early civilizations developed monumental architecture and urban planning
  • Monumental architecture could pull together a community by pulling them together by means of a large worshipping temple, etc.
  • Egypt pyramids were both pulling together and forcing apart because it helped unify but it also created some resentment
  • The market is usually at the city-center that attracts people
  • Examples of monumental architecture:
  • Ziggurats - Sumerian - step pyramids with a ramp up the front
  • Pyramids - Egyptian
  • Temples - everywhere else, including the mesoamerican and the andean cultures
  • Urban planning:
    • defensive walls
    • streets and roads
    • sewage and water systems - the largest ones were the harrapans - indus river valley
  • Elites, both political and religious, promoted arts and artisanship
  • The elites of almost every civilization contributed to art - the elite class supported the class
  • Arts and artisanship that is sponsored by the elite class:
    • sculpture
    • painting
    • wall decorations
    • elaborate weaving
    • cannot show actual weavings because they are all disintegrated
  • Systems of record keeping arose independently in all early civilizations and subsequently were diffused
  • Required examples of systems of record keeping:
    • Cuneform (sumerians)
      • more carved, not so much written
    • Hieroglyphics (egyptians)
      • if it was circled, it meant that it was a proper noun
      • I think that we read it up to down
    • Pictographs (shang)
      • had over 10,000 characters
      • only the learned could write it, but almost everyone could speak to each other
    • alphabets (mesoamerican)
      • I think we can decipher this alphabet
    • Quipu (andean)
      • a message depended on where you tied the knots
      • it was not used in communication, it was record keeping only for the royalty and buisness class
  • States developed that reflected existing hierarchies and facilitated the rule of governments over people.
  • Made the government more important
  • They were bigger than the older places and so the hierarchies became much more rigid and the elites became much more powerful
  • Code of Hammuriabi:
    • the king and his agents lose the power of discretion. Before that, you could get different punishments depending on how the kind felt on any given day.
    • the code meant that one punishment had no crime and everyone knew the laws and there was no ignorance of punishment
    • He put a pillar like that one in the middle of every place he controlled
  • New religious beliefs developed in this period continued to have strong influences in later periods
  • Jainism is a break off of Hinduism
  • The oldest religion in the world is hinduism
  • The vedic region developed in the indus river valley
  • Abraham is the founder of judaism
  • Zoroastrianism is a persian developed religion
    • inside each human, there is a fight between good and evil
    • have the concept of angles and demons
    • good god - ahora mozta?
    • it is still around in iran and it is called parsi?
  • Trade expanded throughout this period from local to regional and transregional, with civilizations exchanging goods, cultural ideas, and technology
  • literature was also a form of culture
  • required examples:
    • epic of gilgamesh (sumerian)
    • Rig Veda (Vedic) - located in India where hinduism developed
      • This has nothing to do with harrapan - they are a dead end culture
    • Book of the Dead (Egypt)

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