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Beneficial Managerial Leading In The Philippine Setting – Part 1

How To Exercise Leadership For Effective Management

There are two kinds of leaders. One has authority and compels grudging obedience from his subordinates and people. The other kind inspires, persuades, and sets an example.

What kind of leader will achieve objectives? A leader must use the autocratic kind of leadership when he is the expert and/or when there is an emergency situation where quick and decisive action appears to be warranted. However, he must use the democratic or participatory kind of leadership when each of his people is capable of functioning independently.

A leader desires to serve. He who leads to serve leads by example. A leader must possess at least a certain degree of imagination and vision. He must be able to think ahead, to visualize, and to plan beyond the immediate present.

He must also have a goal, which is practical and right. If he has the foresight to realistically create plans and programs leading to the goal, he will certainly command the respect of others and be a true leader.

An Executive/Leader Must Know Who He Is

In order to build a following or expand the one he has, an executive/leader must know who he is and where he stands. This can be done visually by examining the four circles given in Figure 1 below. They show the kinds of following that executives/leaders build or fail to build.

Figure 1

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In each kind the executive/leader has carved out a “position” for himself or has had one carved out for him.

The greater the divergence of the subordinates' objectives in an organization from those of the group as a whole, the greater the leadership force required to cause the group to act as a cohesive unit.

Leadership Effectiveness

Based upon the leadership theories and researches, it becomes evident that there is certainly no “one best” style or theory of leadership. In practice, leaders are seldom totally participative, considerate or directive. Many situational, personal, and group variables influence leadership effectiveness (Figure 1). However, regardless of style, a leader should be aware of the variables and considerations which are important for accomplishment of acceptable levels of leadership effectiveness.

The Role Of The Managerial Leader In Clarifying Organizational Values And Employees' Values For Effective Management

Filipinos are group- or relationship-oriented by nature. In the family, in school, and in the work environment, a group or relationship always exists. This may be one of the reasons why Filipinos are generally described as hospitable, charitable, friendly, caring, and family-oriented.

Filipinos join an organization or enter into a relationship for reasons such as need for acceptance, reaction to pressures, employment requirements, situational requirements, and others.

A relationship or group always has rules. These rules may be defined. They become the basis for describing or judging the individual, as a member of the group or relationship, and the group or relationship itself.

The success of the organization or the relationship mainly depends upon how the members relate to each other and coordinate efforts which, in turn, depend upon how they see the group or the relationship as an end or a means to an end.

There are many Filipino values that interplay in the life of an organization and in the task of a managerial leader, such as the following:

- Planning: Ningas Kugon, Bahala Na, Manana Habit, Pasahan ng Trabaho.

- Organizing: Pakikisama, Utang na Loob, Sakop System, Bata-bata System.

- Executing: Filipino Time, Palusot, Hiya, Pakikisama.

- Controlling: Manloloob, Kanya-kanya, Takipan.

Considering the importance of integrating our Filipino employees in the life of the organization, the leader must understand that Filipino values have positive and negative polarities. He must know how to bring out the positive polarity of these Filipino values. Below are the bipolarities of the Filipino value sama:

FILIPINO-SAMA

POSITIVE: May Pakisama (With brotherhood), Tapat makisama (Honest in relationship), Matatag na samahan (Strong relationship), Sang-ayon sa samahan (Conforms with the group), Mabuting samahan (Good relationship)

NEGATIVE: Walang pakisama (Without brotherhood), Mapagkunwaring makisama (Dishonest in relationship), Marupok na samahan (Weak relationship), Tutol sa samahan (Disagrees with the group), Walang kuwentang samahan (Bad relationship)

First, the leader must have positive values. If a leader's values are continually being called in question by his subordinates, he is through as a leader. He must consistently set an example of the values of fairness, integrity, and high moral character. People can see through. The moment the leader begins letting down, hitting the bottle, engaging in unethical conduct - leadership begins to erode and so does his entire future.

A true managerial leader is one who adheres scrupulously to the values of the Ten Commandments of God. His personal integrity will be above question to everyone who really knows him, and his sense of faithfulness and loyalty will permeate his organization.

How A Managerial Leader Communicates For Effective Management

Communicating is the work a manager performs to create understanding among people so they can act effectively. The management functions of planning, organizing, reviewing, controlling, and directing or leading become operational only through effective communication.

The process of communication consists of asking, telling, listening, and understanding. The receiver hears, listens, understands, accepts, and actuates the message given by the source. In management it is the exchange of information with subordinates, associates, superiors, and others about plans, progress, and problems. However, the managerial leader should be careful of the barriers to communication, selectively and emotionally.

It is useful for the managerial leader to have in mind the following principles of communication:

1. Principle of Line Loss: The more extended the communication, the less effective it tends to become.

2. Principle of Emotional Appeal: Appeals to emotion tend to be communicated more readily than appeals to reason.

3. Principle of Application: The more an idea is put to use, the better it is understood and remembered.

The following are the techniques of communicating:

1. Think through what you wish to accomplish.

2. Know what you want to say.

3. Know your audience and determine the ways you will communicate.

4. Gain favorable attention. Appeal to the interests of those affected.

5. Get understanding and ensure retention.

6. Encourage feedback. Give playback on what others communicate to you. Give playback on what you are communicating.

7. Test the effectiveness of important communications before relying upon them. Stress application.

How A Managerial Leader Delegates For Effective Management

The work a manager performs in entrusting responsibility and authority to others and creating accountability for result is called delegating. This is the assigning of work, responsibility, and authority so subordinates can make maximum use of their abilities. Before we go further, let us clarify the terms and concepts involved.

-Responsibility: is the work that is assigned to a position.

-Authority: is the sum of the rights and powers assigned to a position.

-Accountability: is the obligation to perform responsibility and to exercise authority in conformance with understood and accepted standards.

A manager should know clearly what to delegate and what not to delegate. Technical work, routine, and repetitive work can be delegated, but not final management decisions, decisions on overall technical problems and work that team members cannot perform effectively.

There are several management techniques of delegating which a managerial leader should utilize. They are the following:

1. Define existing responsibility and authority in implementing organizational plan.

2. Determine ideal delegation wherein one can avoid making routine decisions.

3. Get subordinates' recommendation and compare the actual with ideal delegation.

4. Delegate as rapidly as the capabilities of subordinates will allow but avoid over-delegating. If possible, allow key people to participate in meetings one has with one's superiors. Think before delegating. a.) Find the man with unusual abilities. b.) Delegate to a wide range of people, not just a selected few. c.) Find the “dark horse” - the not-so-obviously-qualified person. d.) Find the man with a weakness. e.) Delegate to the proper employee.

5. Establish effective control. Make assignments flow smoothly and efficiently. a.) Present a clear picture of all facts. b.) Specify the importance of the assignments. c.) Check on and reassure the employee from time to time. d.) Tell the employee whom he must see to carry out the assignment, and inform ahead of time the people he will have to contact.

6. Secure understanding and acceptance.

Barriers to Delegation

There are two kinds of barriers to effective delegation: 1) Organizational and 2) Psychological.

The organizational barriers are: (1) failure to define responsibility and authority, and (2) incapability of subordinates to do delegated work. The psychological barriers are: (1) manager's lack of confidence in subordinates, (2) manager's thinking that his way is the only way, and (3) manager's fears that subordinates will do a better job.

Many managers are reluctant to deputize or delegate. They hate to release any of their responsibilities to others. There are also a few who willingly give responsibilities to others but never provide them with the necessary authority to get results. Delegation involves not only delegating responsibilities to others but also conferring on them the authority to carry out these responsibilities.

There is also the manager who delegates his responsibilities and authority according to a sound plan but fails to follow up the men to whom he has delegated the responsibilities. No manager can say, “The responsibility is yours,” and then forgets it. The amount of follow-up will depend on the type of work and on the individual deputized. To manage effectively demands the highest degree of leadership.

Supervising calls for the building of morale, the development of cooperation, the use of proper instructional methods, the ability to discipline wisely, and above all, a sound knowledge of human nature. Managers who are weak in delegating are usually weak in organizing; they are unable to see their work in its broader aspects and to break It down into details. In fact, proper organizing provides natural channels for delegating and fixing responsibilities.

What can be delegated? The manager's responsibilities fall into three broad classifications: (1) those which cannot, as a rule, be delegated; (2) those which can be shared in part with others, especially subordinates; and (3) those which can be delegated to others, provided adequate authority is also given to the subordinate.

Responsibilities that cannot, as a rule, be delegated include: (1) the personal responsibility for delegating (the manager is still responsible for the actions of his subordinates); (2) the maintenance of appropriate relations with other departments; (3) the requisitioning and planning for the training of an adequate work force (the actual training remains the responsibility of the manager); (4) reports to superiors; (5) settlement of basic disagreements among subordinates; (6) the provision of proper tools, equipment, and materials. (certain details may be delegated, but primary responsibility remains with the supervisor); (7) departmental morale, including a consideration of absences, tardiness, discipline, safety, and any activity that produces a satisfied work group; and (8) promotions and discharges.

The manager will not need assistance in discharging most of the responsibilities listed in the previous paragraph as being primarily his personal responsibility. Those responsibilities which can be shared with others, especially subordinates, include: (1) preventing accidents, (2) maintaining quantity of production, (3) maintaining quality of production, (4) keeping down departmental costs, (5) training employees, and (6) encouraging cooperation and teamwork.

Responsibilities which can be delegated to others, provided adequate authority is also given, include: (1) proper use and control of materials; (2) provision for safe operating conditions and first aid, and reports of its use; (3) maintenance of proper records on which reports are based, and preparation of reports; (4) health and sanitation; (5) inspection and care of tools and equipment; (6) inspection and check on raw materials; (7) recording men's working time; and (8) maintenance of premises in a clean, sanitary condition. One fact cannot be overemphasized: when a responsibility is delegated, the supervisor must also delegate the necessary authority to carry out the responsibility.

One of the most reliable measures of a manager's leadership ability is the way he delegates. A real leader has the courage to delegate to others and the organizing ability to institute checks to see that delegated responsibilities are carried out according to plan. No manager stands alone. With his men he is a part of an organization made up of many managers like himself and many men, each as a group under a manager. The successful manager constantly considers his responsibilities in terms of (1) those which he can delegate whenever possible and (2) the effect of his action on his own work, his men, and the rest of the organization.

How A Managerial Leader Motivates For Effective Management

A managerial leader must know how to work with people. He must command their admiration and respect their trust, loyalty, and responsiveness. He must be able to motivate them to achieve the organizational objectives and their maximum potential under his guidance.

Genuine friendliness and outgoing concern for others are two hallmarks of a great managerial leader. He has time for friendly chats. He shows interest in the lives, hopes, and dreams of those under him, so that they feel free to share their ideas and suggestions with him. He doesn't hesitate to call conferences and meetings where his people can have an opportunity to share their views regarding problems that face their nation or organization.

This work which a manager performs to inspire, encourage, and impel people to take required action is called motivating. This is encouraging subordinates to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs. Thus, one concern of a managerial leader is in the area of human motivation, particularly human behavior.

There are many theories of human behavior but they are characterized as having little concrete evidence, with much disagreement and controversy. Some of the theories are Elton Mayo-Hawthorne studies, Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and Frederick Herzberg's Hygiene Factors and Motivators. According to the Hawthorne studies, behavior depends on the person and the environment. Theory X affirms that people are by nature passive, indolent, and work as little as possible while theory Y affirms that people are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs, but have become so as a result of experience in the organization. The Hierarchy of Needs Theory affirms that people have the following needs: physiological, security, social, and self-actualization needs. These needs are shown in a hierarchy and indicate that a need at one level tends to come into operation as needs at a lower level are satisfied. The Hygiene Factors and Motivation Theory affirms that the real motivators are the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. The rest are hygiene factors.

Louis Allen enumerates four modes of human actions:

1. Spontaneous mode: intuitive action taken to achieve intuitive objectives.

2. Rational objectives mode: purposeful action taken to achieve predetermined objectives.

3. Centric mode: intuitive action taken to balance concern for one's personal needs and objectives, and second place to the needs and objectives of one's fellow workers and the group as a whole.

4. Radic mode: purposeful action taken to balance concern for one's personal needs and objectives with concern for the needs and objectives of others.

AN ALPHABET OF MORALE BUILDING

We wish to present here some guidelines in Morale Building suggested by Samuel Townsen:

A - Adequate Introduction to the New Job is Important

1. Being too busy to adequately instruct a new employee increases labor turnover and means more new people to train.

2. Everything seems important to the new employee.

3. Bad impressions received by the employee at this time take months to overcome.

B - Be a Square Shooter

1. More than anything else, workers admire a fair boss.

2. Fairness means freedom from favoritism, full credit for all work done, justice in decisions.

3. Never pass the buck to workers during department fall-downs.

4. Be big enough to admit errors and to shoulder responsibility for the failures of those who work for you.

5. When a tough job has to be done, tell them “I know we can do it.”

6. When the job has been done, find time to say, “Well, we did it.” Show admiration.

C - Criticize Wisely

1. Remember that criticism given in public embarrasses unnecessarily.

2. Criticize acts, not intentions.

3. Compare to a standard, not to a fellow worker.

4. In some cases, it is well to begin with praise of the worker's good points.

5. Be specific in criticisms, not general.

6. At the end of the criticism, give the worker a “lift.” Don't leave him discouraged.

D - Develop worker's Initiative

1. Initiative is a precious trait, one that is easily stifled.

2. Encourage workers to use their heads.

3. As far as company standards permit, allow them freedom of choice in work methods.

4. Don't insist that they work your way just because it is your way.

5. With encouragement, workers may develop new and better methods.

E - Encourage and Commend Good Work

1. Workers need praise to stimulate them to give their best.

2. The old-time supervisor who said, “If you don't hear from me, you'll know everything is all right” was using very poor psychology.

3. Praise and a deserved pat on the back will not cause most workers to get a swelled head.

4. Don't withhold deserved praise from 98 percent of your workers for fear that it will adversely affect 2 percent.

F - Find Ways to Build Workers' Self-Respect

1. Treat workers with consideration and courtesy.

2. The Golden Rule is still as good as gold for supervisors.

3. One famous industrial executive said, “In this company we never give an order.”

4. A request recognizes the individuality of a worker; an order ignores his individuality.

G - Grievances Must Be Carefully Handled

1. A grievance cannot be solved by merely ignoring it.

2. Make workers feel free to come to you with grievances.

3. Listen with sincere interest - get all the facts.

4. Discuss the matter calmly - don't get excited.

5. Weigh your decision carefully - avoid snap judgments.

6. Take prompt action.

H - Have as Few Rules as Possible

1. Some departments have a mass of rules and regulations which are violated almost as often as they are observed.

2. It is better not to have a rule than to have a rule of which frequent violations are permitted.

l - Imitation Is Powerfully Instinctive

1. Workers unconsciously tend to imitate the habits and attitudes of their supervisors.

2. You can't expect them to obey rules which you habitually ignore.

3. You can't “pan” the management and expect your workers to feel respect and confidence in your firm.

4. What kind of an example do you set for your workers?

J - Job Simplification Is a Welcome Help to Workers

1. Study each operation in your department painstakingly and seek shortcuts and energy-saving improvements.

2. If there has been no improvement on a job operation for the past five years, chances are, it is out-of-date.

3. Job simplification sounds better than efficiency engineering.

4. Keep up with the increased tempo of methods improvement.

K - Know Your Workers and Their Problems

1. Get to know your workers - their strong points, weak points, desires, hopes, and ambitions.

2. Make them feel that you are vitally interested in their ambitions.

3. Workers like a boss who understands and appreciates their problems.

4. Distance lends lack of understanding - don't be a distant boss.

5. When an employee suffers bereavement or misfortune, express sincere sympathy. Offer what help you can.

L - Loyalty to the Group Can Be Developed

1. Strive to develop group pride in the accomplishments of your department.

2. When possible, hold meetings with the group - give them information.

3. Group meetings give a chance for workers to speak up, and for the group to get better acquainted.

4. Show your pride in the group.

5. Develop a healthy spirit of competition between your department and other departments.

6. Every worker wants to play on the team.

7. The awareness of teamwork is a morale builder.

M - Make Every Job Interesting

1. There are interest-arousing features in every job.

2. Every job has importance in the department's operation, in the output of the company, and in the total effort.

3. Spotlight and dramatize the importance of every job.

4. Tell every worker the “why” of what he is doing.

5. Employees want to know.

6. Tell them about plans and results.

N - No Promise Is Unimportant

1. Even the most casual promise that you make to a worker is important to him.

2. When you say, “I'll look into the matter,” you are duty bound to really do it.

3. When workers ask for a decision on some matter, they are entitled to a clear-cut answer just as soon as you can get the facts.

4. Never make promises that you cannot fulfill.

5. Employees are entitled to prompt decisions.

O – Opportunity for Promotion Is Stimulating

1. Everyone wants to feel that he is getting ahead.

2. Help your workers to improve their skills and knowledge so that they will be in line for promotion. Encourage them to take additional schooling or extra-company courses.

3. Make promotions on the basis of merit.

4. Never hold a worker back from a better job because he is too valuable on his present job.

P - Pride in Workmanship Is a Universal Instinct

1. Every worker has, to some degree, pride in achievement.

2. Good supervision can do much to encourage and develop this pride.

3. Always give recognition for outstanding performance.

4. Poor or inadequate tools discourage pride in workmanship.

5. Let workers know that you are trying to get the best tools and machines possible for them.

Q - Quit Relying on the Fear Motive

1. The success supervisor today is a leader rather than a driver.

2. Fear of censure, fear of losing the job, fear of economic insecurity - these are negative incentives. Continued fear and tension lead to fatigue and physical breakdown.

3. Wholehearted cooperation is never built on a foundation of fear.

R - Responsibility Develops Morale

1. Workers grow and respond under increased responsibility.

2. Keep their jobs growing as fast as they can shoulder new responsibilities.

3. This is a form of recognition for work well done.

4. Added responsibilities, even in small things, imply confidence in the worker's abilities.

S - Stimulate Workers' Suggestions

1. Realize that the average worker hesitates to make suggestions.

2. Workers can give many excellent suggestions about their own jobs.

3. Make them feel that you really want suggestions.

4. Give credit and publicity for good suggestions.

5. Never ridicule a suggestion, no matter how impractical.

T - Teach Best Methods

1. Take pains to show workers the best ways to do their jobs.

2. Help them to make the attainment of good results simpler and easier.

3. In teaching, present one step at a time - slowly, clearly, patiently.

4. Tell. Show. Illustrate. Ask questions.

5. Don't teach more than the learner can master at one time.

U – Understand that People Resist Change

There are ways that this resistance may be minimized:

1. Explain the reason for changes that are necessary. People will cooperate better if they are given a chance to understand the reasons.

2. If possible, let the workers make suggestions on the changes.

3. Don't spring a change on workers as a surprise. Surprises upset people. Tell them in advance. Give them a chance to get prepared for the change. If workers raise objections, consider these fairly and carefully.

V - Value Every Worker's Desire for a Place under the Sun

1. Treat workers as partners instead of subordinates.

2. Don't ignore any worker on your force, no matter how minor his job.

3. Every worker is a human being - treat him as such.

4. Show interest. Give credit. Lend a sympathetic ear to troubles.

W - Working Conditions Are Important

1. Employees' attitudes are constantly being influenced by the conditions under which they work.

2. Seemingly minor annoyances, through repetition, become irritating.

3. Check on lighting, heat, ventilation, dirt, unnecessary noise, and condition of cafeteria, rest rooms, locker rooms, and toilets.

X - X-Ray Your Workers' Dissatisfactions

1. Grumbling is not necessarily an evidence of disloyalty.

2. Workers often don't understand their own emotions.

3. Study, analyze, and dissect the causes of their dissatisfactions.

4. A sympathetic approach to workers' problems often solves dissatisfaction.

Y - You Are of the Utmost Importance to Morale

1. As the leader of a group, you have a big responsibility.

2. You must do most of the planning.

3. Keep physically fit; keep calm; don't let irritations “get you down.”

4. Be enthusiastic about things and SHOW YOUR WORKERS YOUR ENTHUSIASM.

Z - Zero Hour Is Now

NOW is the time to put all of these morale-building devices into operation.

Continue to Part 2

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