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AP Human Geography Study Guide

Chapter 1: Globalization:

  • A set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence, as well as a set of outcomes that are unevenly distributed, varying across scales, and differently manifested throughout the world, all without regard to country borders
  • Many discussions of globalization focus on the pull between global and local.
  • Geographers use scale to understand the interrelationships among individual, local, regional, national, and global.
  • What happens at the global scale affects the local, but it also affects the individual, regional, and similarly the processes at these scales impact the global.
  • We use scale to understand the effects of globalization and the things that shape globalization
  • Globalizing processes occur at the world scale; these processes bypass country borders and include global financial markets or even global environmental change
  • What happens at other scales helps create the processes of globalization and shape the outcomes of globalization.
  • Advances in communication and transportation technologies are making places and people more interconnected.
  • Despite all these aspects of popular culture, such as fashion and architecture, making many people and places look more alike, our world still encompasses a multitude of ways in which people identify themselves and others.
  • Processes at the global scale and processes that disregard country borders are clearly changing human geography.
  • No place on earth is untouched by people.
  • This is how we study human geography.
  • Globalization means that the world is shrinking in the ability of a person, object, or idea to interact with a person, object, or idea in another.

Global-Local Continuum

  • The notion that what happens on the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, aka “glocal”
  • Scales range from local, to regional, national, and global
  • We are more connected now than ever before.
    • Example: Global-Local tensions underlying unrest in Iraq
      • The global scale was the basis for the initial case made by the US for going to war with Iraq in 2003
      • Iraq was said to possess weapons of mass destruction that could fall into the hands of terrorists.
      • Strong regional-scale divisions emerged in Iraq after the US and allied countries invaded Iraq and deposed Iraqi President, Saddam Hussein.
      • Iraq’s principal ethnic groups were split into regions, with Kurds in the North, Sunnis in the center, and Shiites in the south.
      • Much of the continuing violence in Iraq came at the local scale, because the country is divided into hundreds of federations, tribes, clans, houses, and extended families.
  • Physical Geography: One of the two major divisions of systematic geography, the spatial analysis of the structure of processes , and location of the Earth’s natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.
    • The study of physical phenomena on Earth
    • Only natural landforms–not cultural landscape

Spatial Distribution

  • Spatial distribution and pattern
  • Processes that create and sustain a distribution
    • ex: Map of Cholera victims in Soho in 1854; patterns of of victim’s homes and water pump locations key to the source of the disease–Dr. John Snow
  • Physical location of geographic phenomena across space
  • Looking at how things are laid out
  • Mapping the spatial distribution of a phenomenon is typically the first step to to understanding it
  • In medical geography, mapping the distribution of a disease is the first step to finding its cause.
  • Change over time = history, change over space = geography
  • Spatial perspective - observing variations in geographic phenomena across space

Five Themes

  1. Location: The geographical situation of places and things
  2. Human-Environment Interaction: Reciprocal relationship between humans and the environment
  3. Region: An area on the Earth’s surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon
  4. Place: Uniqueness of location
  5. Movement: The mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet
    • Accessibility, Distance, and Connectivity (spatial interaction and diffusion)

Four Traditions

  1. An Earth-Science Tradition: physical (natural) geography.
    • Don’t study the impact of humans
    • Intellectual Legacy:
      • Aristotle: Greek philosopher who looked at the physical/natural aspect
      • Modern Geographer: Immanuel Kant
        • German
    • All knowledge can be classified logically or physically
    • Descriptions according to time=history
    • Descriptions according to place=geography
    • Historical phenomenon is ordered chronologically
    • Geography studies phenomena that are located beside each other
  2. A Man-Land Tradition: relationships between human societies and natural environments
    • Intellectual Legacy:
      • Hippocrates
        • Greek physician
        • Wrote that places affect health and character of a man
        • Modern Geographers: Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Ritter
          • German
    • Explains why certain phenomena are absent or present
    • Origin of ‘why’ and “where” approach
    • Environmental determinism
    • How the physical environment causes social development
    • The effect of climate on success
  3. A Spatial Tradition: spatial unifying theme, similar patterns between physical and human geography.
    • Intellectual Legacy:
      • Ptolemy
        • Greek
        • Invented geometry
        • Wrote Geographia- contained numerous maps
      • Modern Geographer
        • Alfred Wegener
          • Climatologist
          • Studied spatial arrangement of land masses using geographical and geological evidence
          • Came up with continental drift theory/plate tectonics
  4. An Area-Studies Tradition: regional geography
    • Intellectual Legacy:
      • Strabo
        • Roman investigator
        • Summed up and regularized knowledge of location and place, their character, and differentiation
    • Modern Geographer
      • Carl Sauer
        • American
        • The work of human geography is to discern relationships among social and physical phenomena
        • Everything in landscape is interrelated
        • Came up with the concept of Cultural Landscape

Cultural Landscape

  • Carl Sauer
  • The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
  • The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants
  • Landscape - material character of a place, the complex of natural features, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place a particular form
  • Sequent occupance - sequential imprints of occupants that are layered onto the cultural landscape of an area
  • Things people built
    • Ex: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania - first, Arabs went there, then Germans went there, British encouraged Indians to go there, and finally, became capital of Tanzania

Sense of Place

  • State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with certain character
  • When you infuse a place with religious emotion, it becomes a sacred site

Absolute Location

  • Position/place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude (sideways lines) and longitude (vertical lines)
  • Cannot change over time
  • Akin to site, but not exactly the same
  • Expressed as either GPS coordinates or an address

Site

  • The internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character, and physical setting
  • Generally used to talk about a city

Relative Location

  • Regional position of a place relative to the position of other places
  • Distance, accessibility, and connectivity affect this
  • Can change over time
  • Akin to situation, but not exactly the same

Situation

  • External locational attributes of a place, its relative location or regional position with reference to other non-local places
  • Generally used to talk about a city

Formal Region

  • Type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena
  • Also called uniform/homogenous region
  • Whole region has a shared trait (cultural or physical)
    • ex. Corn Belt

Functional Region

  • Region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
  • Have shared political, social, or economic purpose
  • Doesn’t have to be culturally homogenous
  • Internal structure that works to connect the places (99% of the time is economic and relates to the city)
    • Ex: City and its hinterland (“country behind”, area that serves and is served by a city, outskirts)

Perceptual Region

  • Reflects human feelings and attitudes about areas, they are based more on opinions than facts

Types of Diffusion

  • Diffusion: The process of the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth to other areas
  • Factors that slow or prevent diffusion
    • Time-distance decay
    • Cultural barriers
  • Expansion Diffusion: Idea or innovation spreading outward from the hearth
  • Contagious: spreads to next available person
    • Ex. Disease and initial music (Dave Matthew’s band)
  • Hierarchical: spreads to most linked peoples or places first
    • ex: Fashion, pop cultural
  • Stimulus: promotes local experiment or change
    • ex: McDonald’s in India and Israel
  • Relocation Diffusion: movement of individuals who carry on an idea or innovation with them to a new locale
    • ex: Europeans settle in the U.S., Portuguese Settle in Brazil

Environmental Determinism

  • Has been rejected by almost all geographers
  • The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
  • Developed by Greeks because they believed they were ahead of everyone in philosophy, science, and math etc. etc. due to the favorable climate
  • Counterexample: Mayan civilization in Americas arose in tropical climate that was assumed incapable of complex thinking.

Cultural Ecology

  • The multiple interactions and relations between a culture and the natural environment.
  • Sustainability: is the path we are on sustainable?…What role does human life play on cultural ecology?…Can this continue?
  • Definition: an area of inquiry concerned with culture as a system of adaptation to and alteration of environment
  • Supplemented with political ecology (environmental consequences of political arrangements)
  • Human will is too powerful to be determined by environment (branch of possibilism)

Scale: Territorial extent of something

  • Varying scales of observations:
    • Local
    • Regional
    • National
    • Global
  • The Power of Scale:
    • Influence of processes operating at different scales
    • Context of a phenomena in what is happening at different scales
    • Political use of scale to change who is involved or how an issue is perceived
    • Globalizing processes occur at the world scale
    • Map Scale: The ratio of the distance between locations on a map to the actual distance between the location
      • Ratio (fraction) scales
      • Bar scales
      • Written scales
  • Scale is an important conceptual tool for geography
  • Size of the unit studied
    • Local scale
    • Regional scale
    • Global scale situation may begin as a local phenomenon, but become regional or even global
  • Scale affects our perceptions of accuracy and truth
  • Why of Where

Chapter 2 & 3: Total Fertility Rate(TFR)

  • The average number of children per woman
  • TFR needed to maintain the population/Replacement Rate: 2.1
  • All Europeans countries are below replacements rate–this is known as implosion
  • A low TFR was once a status symbol, but countries in Europe are finding too-low levels detrimental to the population
  • Population Density: a measure of total population relative to land size
  • Population density assumes an even distribution of the population over the land
  • Arithmetic Density: measure of total population relative to land area
  • Physiologic population density: population per unit area of agriculturally productive land
  • Ex- Egypt has a low arithmetic population density but a high physiologic population density An estimated 98 percent of all Egyptians live on just 3 percent of the country’s land (page 41)
  • Europe is 80% urbanized while China is 35% Urbanized

Population Clusters (top 3 on Eurasian land mass)

  1. East Asia (China, Korea, Japan)- ¼ of world’s population concentrated along Yangtze and Yellow River valleys; mostly rural farmers
  2. South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka)- 1.5 billion in major cities along rivers like Ganges and Indus; barriers of Himalayans (north) and desert west of Indus River Valley in Pakistan; huge pressure on land (ever growing)-e.g. Bangladesh vs. Iowa
  3. Europe (well….countries……in Europe…)- 715 million (less than half of South Asia!); distribution reflects coal fields; mostly urbanized due to Industrial Revolution
  4. North America (megalopolis from D.C. to Boston)- 20% of U.S. population, but doesn’t come close to any other cluster

Urban/Wealthier Density Rates

  • Low infant Mortality Rate
  • Long life expectancy, especially females
  • Little or no growth, even natural decrease
  • How urbanized a country/area is, e.g. Germany 88%, UK 89% (generally high percentages in Europe) vs. 30% in East/South Asia
  • How urbanized a country/area is, e.g. Germany 88%, UK 89% (generally high percentages in Europe) vs. 30% in East/South Asia

Thomas Malthus

  • Wrote An Essay on the Principles of Population in 1798
    • Population growing exponentially
    • Food supplies growing linearly
    • Neo-Malthusians: think his ideas are coming back, the world population is growing

Doubling Time

  • Numbers of years for a population to double in size(like a bank deposit at compound interest)
  • Decreased doubling time (rapid growth), than increased doubling time(growth slowed down)
  • Increased Doubling Time is what is happening now

Demographic Transition Model

  • Changes in birth, death, and natural increase rates

i.imgur.com_fck0hqw.jpg

Infant Mortality Rate

  • One of the leading measures of the conditions of a country’s population
    • NOTE: the number is out of a thousand live births
  • Reflects overall health of society, i.e. poor sanitation, malnutrition, low Mother’s Index, etc.
  • IMR in U.S. varies by region (high in South, low in Northeast)
  • Certain contributing factors vary depending on ethnicity or race, e.g. smoking during pregnancy was higher for non-Hispanic whites than African Americans

Cyclic movement

  • (Through activity space) movement away from home for a short period of time
  • Commuting between home and work
  • Seasonal movement (such as snowbirds)
  • Nomadism
  • Not aimless wandering
  • Meat based diet
  • Pastoral-only raise animals
  • Ending back where you started

Periodic Movement

  • Movement away from home for a longer period of time
  • Migrant labor: Mexicans in US
  • Transhumance
  • Military service
  • College
  • Transhumance: ranchers move livestock according to pastoral availability–Mountains–Going where you can

”“US Migration Flows

  • East to West: Louisiana Purchase-Civil War
  • South to North: Civil War-Great Depression (blacks for economic opportunity)
  • North to South: Great Depression-Present
  • West to East:Present(Hispanics)
    • Rust belt-North
    • Sun belt- South
  • Most country’s internal migration is rural to urban

Biggest Jumps in Economy

  • 1870-1880: end of civil war
  • 1960-1980: became a service based economy

Ravenstein’s Laws/Gravity Model

  1. Every Migration flow generates a return or counter migration
  2. The Majority of Migrants move a short distance
  3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
  4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
  5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
  • Chain Migration: Further Migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled
  • Refugees: People who flee across an international boundary lines because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion
  • Internally Displaced Humans- refugees within their home country

Immigration Control in the US

  • Little restriction
  • Quotas by nationality
  • Selective immigration

Chapter 4 & 5:

  • Anabaptists
    • Mennonites- dispersed
    • Amish-strictest(no electricity at all), Family Farms, Pennsylvania, Ohio
    • Hutterites-live communally, live in Northwest and Canada, accept technology for work
  • Local Culture: A group in a particular place that sees itself as a community, shares experiences, customs, and traits and customs to distinguish the group from others
  • Folk Cultures: cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of typically small, traditional communities
  • Material Culture: Constructed items, frequently expressing nonmaterial culture such as crucifixes, dream catchers, and the like.

The material culture of a group includes things they construct

Diffusion of Pop Culture

  • Previously, innovations such as agriculture had taken as much as 10,000 years to diffuse around the world.
  • More recently, the Industrial Revolution was measured over the course of 100 years or more
  • Even more recently in the past century, the pace of diffusion has shrunk down to months, weeks, and even days
  • Distance decay has been changed by the development of transportation and communication technologies
    • David Harvey uses time-space compression to explain how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication technologies
    • It is now how connected cities are that affect the rate of diffusion rather than the distance between places.
    • Technologies such as airplanes, e-mail, wireless connections, and the telephone all help connect places.
    • Places that lack transportation and communications technologies are now removed from interconnected places more than ever

Preserving Local Cultures

  • To force people of indigenous cultures to adopt dominant cultures
  • Preservation of Customs: practices that people routinely follow
  • Preserving Boundaries to keep other cultures out (AKA: Isolation)
  • Avoiding Cultural Appropriation: to keep control over their own culture
  • Importance of place
  • Example: The text focuses on one local culture which is conspicuous in its in its attempts to lessen the influence of foreign popular culture by controlling its cultural media outlets and industries. It’s France.

Neolocalism

  • The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
  • Example: Little Sweden in Lindsborg, Kansas
  • Makkah Indians seeking to revive whale hunt
  • Reviving minority languages
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods: Local cultures within cities
    • Example: East Harlem, NYC; Little Havana and Little Haiti, Miami; Chinatowns; Little Italy, NYC; Koreatown, LA
  • Invasion and Succession: when one culture comes in and takes over an ethnic neighborhood
    • ex: Puerto Rican moving into NY and kicking out the Jews
  • Time-Space Compression: Interaction dependent on connectedness among places
  • Commodification: Giving something monetary value
  • Reterritorialization: With respect to popular culture, when people in a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making their own.

Identity

  • “How we make sense of ourselves”-Gillian Rose
  • Established through:
    • experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections
    • a snapshot of who we are at some point in time
  • Fluid, constantly changing, shifting, and becoming
  • Varying across scales
  • Affects each other across scales
  • Identifying against (defining the other and then defining ourselves as “not the other”)

Race

  • A categorization of humans based on physical appearance such as skin color
  • Social and political constructions
  • Based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others
  • Major element in colonialism and imperialism
  • Typically imposed on people through:
  • Residential segregation
  • Racialized divisions of labor
  • Racial categories defined by governments (like on the census)

Ethnicity

  • A constructed identity that is tied to a place
  • Comes from the idea that people are closely bounded, even related, in a place over time
  • Often a result of migration
  • May change in meaning with migration

Gender

  • A culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women
  • Their characters, roles they play in society, and what they represent
  • Queer Theory: Focuses on the political engagement of queers with the heteronormative which was made by geographers Elder, Knopp, and Nast. Their theory shows that despite people being homosexuals, they are like the heterosexuals, settling in certain neighborhoods of cities
    • e.g. Adams-Morgan and DuPoint Circle in Washington D.C.

Chapter 6: Language

  • A set of sounds and symbols used for communication
  • Language questions are often politicized
  • Language is frequently tied to identity issues, like socioeconomic status
  • Language is a fundamental element of local and national culture
  • language reflects and shapes culture
  • Language shapes our thoughts
  • We use vast vocabularies to define ideas, experiences and feelings;or we create new words
  • Language reflects where a country has been historically, what a culture values, and how people in a culture think
  • Language helps bind cultural identity
  • Language is very personal

Dialect

  • Variations of standard language across regional or ethnic lines
  • Differences in vocabulary, syntax, pronunciation, cadence, and the pace of speech marks the speaker’s dialect
  • Thought of in terms of dialect chains
  • Example(s): Coke vs. Pop vs. Soda, Cantonese and Mandarin, Variations of Italian, Quebecois and French French

Standard Language

  • A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught
  • Sustained by the government
    • Example: Standard Italian is the Italian spoken in florence and tuscany

Language Families: 15 Major Language Families

  1. Indo-European
  2. Afro-Asiatic
  3. Niger-Congo
  4. Saharan
  5. Altaic
  6. Khoisan
  7. Sudanic
  8. Uralic
  9. Sino-Tibetan
  10. Japanese/Korean
  11. Dravidian
  12. Austro-Asiatic
  13. Austronesian
  14. Trans New Guinea and Australian
  15. Amerindian
  • Isogloss: a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic family occurs
  • Soundshift: A slight change in a word across language within a subfamily or throughout a language family
    • Example: Otto (Latin), Octo, Ocho (spanish), Huit
  • Pidgin Languages: A language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary
    • Two languages come together to form a basic language, primarily for trade
      • Example: Frankish
        • Creole Languages: a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
          • Haitian Creole, Louisiana Creole
  • Lingua Franca: A language used among speakers of different languages for trade and commerce
    • Example: English…Swahili(Africa)

Toponyms

  • A place name
  • Imparts a certain character on a place
  • Reflects the social processes in a place
  • Can give a glimpse of the history of a place
  • Carries history in the name
  • Very distinctive
  • Hints at where a culture originated from
  • George Stewart created 10 ways to classify toponyms in America:
    1. Descriptive
      • Examples: Rocky Mountains, Palm Beach
    2. Associative
      • Associate toponyms with what’s going on in it (economic activity
      • Example: Mill Valley, California
    3. Commemorative
      • Named after someone
      • Example: Washington DC; Lincoln and Jefferson
    4. Commendatory
      • Example: Paradise Valley…Hell, Michigan
    5. Incidence
      • Example: Battle Creek, Michigan
    6. Possession
      • Named after the people who formed the town
      • Example: Johnson City, Texas; Baltimore, Maryland
    7. Folk
      • Based on the folk or local culture present
      • Example: Plains, Georgia
    8. Manufacture
      • Commodification of toponyms
      • Example: Truth or Consequences, New Mexico…Dish, Texas
    9. Mistake
      • Example: Laskar, North Carolina was supposed to be named Alaska, North Carolina
    10. Shift:
      • Taken from one place and given to another
      • Example: New York…Paris, Texas…Athens, Georgia
      • Diffuses through relocation, migration, human interaction, and colonization (Relocation Diffusion)
    11. Also double toponyms (Alpine Mountains)

Multilingualism

  • Monolingual States: A country in which only one language is spoken
    • Example: Japan (mostly)
  • Multilingual States: A country in which more than one language is in use
    • Example: The US, Canada, Switzerland, India
  • Official Language: Government-selected language or languages to try to enhance communication in a multilingual state
    • Example: French is the official language of France
  • Nation states are Monolingual
  • Most countries are Multilingual
  • Difference between official and standard language:
    • Official languages are the language of the land by law; chosen by the government
    • No official language in the US on Federal Level
    • Standard Language is promoted by the government
      • Taught by schools
      • English is the standard language of the US
      • The standard Italian is the dialect of Florence and Tuscany

Chapter 7:

  • Animistic Religions: Belief that inanimate objects, such as mountains, trees and rivers, possess spirits and should be revered
    • Example: Indigenous/Tribal religions
  • Ethnic Religions: Religions whose adherents are born into the faith and whose members do not actively seek converts
    • Example: Judaism
  • Universalizing Religions: Religions that actively seek converts because member believe they offer belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal
    • Example: Buddhism
    • Most Universalizing Religion is Christianity
  • Evangelical Universalizing Religions:
    • Example: Christianity

Hinduism

  • Originated in the Indus River Valley
  • 4000 years old
  • Believe in ritual bathing in Ganges, Reincarnation and Karma
  • Sacred texts: Vedas
  • Indus river valley=Present Day Pakistan
  • 4 Vedas
  • No specific dogma
  • No known founder
  • 900 million Hindus–mostly in India and Bali
  • Considered polytheistic, but according to Hindus it’s monotheistic
  • Main God is Brahman
  • Believe the God can inhabit statues (Icons)

Buddhism

  • Direct result of Hindu reformation, didn’t like the Hinduism caste system
  • 2500 years old
  • Hearth in India
  • Sacred Site: Bodhi Tree from which Buddha became enlightened; Stupas; Pagodas
  • Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area
  • Beliefs: Anyone can achieve salvation/reach enlightenment
  • Founder: Siddhartha
  • Diffusion
  • Tibet in the North
  • East Asia
  • Siddhartha
    • Prince who was against Indian caste system
    • Decided to sit under Bodhi tree to meditate and achieve Nirvana
    • Became the Buddha
    • Nirvana=Enlightenment=Becoming one with the Universe
    • The first Buddha-Not a God
  • Anyone can achieve Nirvana
  • Pacifists
  • Vegetarians
  • Fat Buddha depicts prosperity to Eastern Asian cultures
  • Dalai Lama: believed to be reincarnation of original Buddha
  • Banned from Tibet once taken over by China
  • Stupas:
    • Traditional Buddhist architecture
    • Buddha statues inside
    • Shinto-Buddhism: mix of Buddhism and indigenous religions
    • Similar to Monks
    • Buddhas chosen but which toys the pick at birth

Sikhism

  • Blend of Hinduism and Islam, even though they are opposite religions
  • People think they are Muslims because they wear turbans (what?)
  • Monotheistic
  • Spiritual leader is a Guru

Taoism

  • From the Hearth of the Huang He/Yellow River Valley
  • Minor Chinese religion
  • Originated in China
  • 2500 years old
  • Belief in oneness of humanity and nature
  • Founder: Lao-Tsu
  • Sacred text: Book of the Way
  • Social Manifestation: Feng Shui
    • Directs energy flow
    • Taoist live by it
    • Geomancers

Confucianism

  • From the Hearth of the Huang He/ Yellow River Valley
  • Originated in China
  • 2500 years ago
  • Belief that the real meaning of life lies in the present
  • Founder: Confucius
  • Sacred Texts: (13) Confucian Classics
  • Diffusion:
    • East Asia
    • Southeast Asia

Judaism

  • 4000 years old
  • From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean
  • Originated in Southwest Asia
  • Beliefs:
    • First major monotheistic religion
    • Covenant between God (did someone really try to censor this? my goodness child…)(Judaism say they can’t write God, most write it G-d) and Abraham
  • Sacred text: Torah
  • First Patriarch/Leader: Abraham
  • Turbulent History
  • Wailing Wall=Western Wall
  • Wailing Wall like in the Secret Life of Bees
  • Sacred Sites:
    • Jerusalem(Western Wall)
    • Land Between Mediterranean and the Jordan River
  • Social Manifestation: Zionism
  • Desire of homeland for the Jews
  • Arose after WWII
  • 18 Million Jews worldwide
  • Very Ritualistic
  • Orthodox: Most Conservative
  • Conservative: Middle ground
  • Reform: Least Conservative
  • Jews dispersed by the defeat of the Roman Empire (diaspora)
  • Palestinians/Muslims: came in after Romans
  • Jewish claim to Israel is older, but the Muslims were there longer
  • Western Wall: Only thing left of the Second Jewish Temple
  • Muslim, Jewish, and Christian beliefs are rooted in Jerusalem
  • Jews came back to Israel after WWII 1948
  • Jewish communities in big cities
  • Waiting for Messiah to lead them into the Golden Age
  • Second practiced religion
  • Ashkenazim: Central Europe
  • Sephardim: North Africa and Iberian Peninsula

Christianity

  • Based on Judaism
  • Founded by Jesus
  • Evangelical Universalizing
  • Monotheistic
  • Worship God
  • Pretty flexible
  • Believe that if you worship god, you will be rewarded
  • Jesus is a Jew
  • Christians are Jews that got tired of waiting
  • Believe Jesus is the messiah
  • Christmas: symbolizes Jesus’s birth but actually pagan holiday
  • Easter: Day Jesus rose from the dead (more religious) (but we turned it into a holiday that has a bunny that lays eggs of chocolate)(yum) (who is we?)
  • Sacred Text: Bible
  • Same hearth as Judaism
  • Jesus: prophet (and son of God to christians) (Jewish)
  • Jesus was like a demigod (says who?)
  • Disciples(Peter and Paul) started Christianity by building the church
  • Intended to reform Judaism
    • Example: Believed food restrictions were too difficult to follow
  • Originated in Southwest Asia
  • From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean
  • Whole new take on God
  • More pacifist
  • New Testament
  • Holy Trinity: Father, Son, and the Holy Ghost
  • Born to Virgin Mary and Joseph
  • Crucification: Jesus died Friday and was reborn on Sunday
  • Dispersed when it was adopted by the Roman Empire (Emperor Constantine)
  • Roman Catholic
  • Roman Empire collapses due to immense size and becomes Holy
  • Pope is believed to have a direct link to God, therefore he is infallible
  • Priests: Middleman
  • Can punish you and absolve your sins
  • Only in Catholic church (Don’t the eastern orthodox have priests?)
  • Too hard to control from Rome so divided the Holy Roman Empire into the East and the West
  • East ruled by Constantinople (Present-Day Istanbul)
  • Eastern Orthodox: Christian, but different practices
  • Ethiopia
  • Russia
  • Greece
  • Icons–art made by an artist who was inspired by God–are okay to worship
  • Roman Catholicism is the most practiced and the most dispersed
  • Catholic Church became corrupt due to too much power
  • Purgatory: In between heaven and hell

Islam

  • Extremely Monotheistic
  • Leader: Muhammad
  • Hearth: Mecca (present day Saudi Arabia)
  • Sacred Sites: Jerusalem (Dome of the Rock), Mecca(Hajj), and Medina
  • Dispersed from trade and conquest
  • Influential in North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Indonesia (Indonesia is 99% Muslim)
  • 1.5 billion followers
  • Deity: Allah (God)
  • Founded 1,500 years ago
  • Holy Book: Qu’ran
  • Basic Beliefs (V Pillars)
  • Creed: Allah is the one true god and Muhammad is his prophet
  • Prayer (5 times a day)
  • Almsgiving: Charity
  • Fasting: Ramadan
  • Pilgrimage: Hajj to Mecca
  • 2 sects after the death of Muhammad:
  1. Sunni
    • Majority
  2. Shi’ite
  • Muhammad's son-in-law Ali founded this sect
  • Concentrated in Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, regions of Russia
  • Follow Imams who are believed to be spiritually linked to Allah
  • Places Of Worship: Mosques
  • Minarets
  • Geometric Designs
  • No depiction of Muhammad or human form

Secularism

  • Indifference to or rejection of organized religious affiliations and ideas
  • NOT the same as atheism
  • The case of the Soviet Union
  • Had an official policy of atheism
  • Discouraged religious practice
  • Drew boundaries for political control that separated ethnic groups in small areas (Armenia and Azerbaijan)
  • Revival of religion after fall of communism
  • Intra-faith Boundaries: with in a major religion boundaries
  • Divisions between Christianity in the US
  • Divisions between Catholics and Protestants in the UK (Northern Ireland)
  • Fundamentalism: bringing back the basics of a religion, often as a response to secularism; on the rise today
  • US Regional Religious Associations

Infant Mortality Rate

  • One of the leading measures of the conditions of a country’s population
    • NOTE: the number is out of a thousand live births
  • Reflects overall health of society, i.e. poor sanitation, malnutrition, low Mother’s Index, etc.
  • IMR in U.S. varies by region (high in South, low in Northeast)
  • Certain contributing factors vary depending on ethnicity or race, e.g. smoking during pregnancy was higher for non-Hispanic whites than African Americans

Cyclic movement

  • (Through activity space) movement away from home for a short period of time
  • Commuting between home and work
  • Seasonal movement (such as snowbirds)
  • Nomadism
  • Not aimless wandering
  • Meat based diet
  • Pastoral-only raise animals
  • Ending back where you started

Periodic Movement

  • Movement away from home for a longer period of time
  • Migrant labor: Mexicans in US
  • Transhumance
  • Military service
  • College
  • Transhumance: ranchers move livestock according to pastoral availability–Mountains–Going where you can

”“US Migration Flows

  • East to West: Louisiana Purchase-Civil War
  • South to North: Civil War-Great Depression (blacks for economic opportunity)
  • North to South: Great Depression-Present
  • West to East:Present(Hispanics)
    • Rust belt-North
    • Sun belt- South
  • Most country’s internal migration is rural to urban

Biggest Jumps in Economy

  • 1870-1880: end of civil war
  • 1960-1980: became a service based economy

Ravenstein’s Laws/Gravity Model

  1. Every Migration flow generates a return or counter migration
  2. The Majority of Migrants move a short distance
  3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
  4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
  5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
  • Chain Migration: Further Migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled
  • Refugees: People who flee across an international boundary lines because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion
  • Internally Displaced Humans- refugees within their home country

Immigration Control in the US

  • Little restriction
  • Quotas by nationality
  • Selective immigration

Chapter 4 & 5:

  • Anabaptists
    • Mennonites- dispersed
    • Amish-strictest(no electricity at all), Family Farms, Pennsylvania, Ohio
    • Hutterites-live communally, live in Northwest and Canada, accept technology for work
  • Local Culture: A group in a particular place that sees itself as a community, shares experiences, customs, and traits and customs to distinguish the group from others
  • Folk Cultures: cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of typically small, traditional communities
  • Material Culture: Constructed items, frequently expressing nonmaterial culture such as crucifixes, dream catchers, and the like.

The material culture of a group includes things they construct

Diffusion of Pop Culture

  • Previously, innovations such as agriculture had taken as much as 10,000 years to diffuse around the world.
  • More recently, the Industrial Revolution was measured over the course of 100 years or more
  • Even more recently in the past century, the pace of diffusion has shrunk down to months, weeks, and even days
  • Distance decay has been changed by the development of transportation and communication technologies
    • David Harvey uses time-space compression to explain how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication technologies
    • It is now how connected cities are that affect the rate of diffusion rather than the distance between places.
    • Technologies such as airplanes, e-mail, wireless connections, and the telephone all help connect places.
    • Places that lack transportation and communications technologies are now removed from interconnected places more than ever

Preserving Local Cultures

  • To force people of indigenous cultures to adopt dominant cultures
  • Preservation of Customs: practices that people routinely follow
  • Preserving Boundaries to keep other cultures out (AKA: Isolation)
  • Avoiding Cultural Appropriation: to keep control over their own culture
  • Importance of place
  • Example: The text focuses on one local culture which is conspicuous in its in its attempts to lessen the influence of foreign popular culture by controlling its cultural media outlets and industries. It’s France.

Neolocalism

  • The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
  • Example: Little Sweden in Lindsborg, Kansas
  • Makkah Indians seeking to revive whale hunt
  • Reviving minority languages
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods: Local cultures within cities
    • Example: East Harlem, NYC; Little Havana and Little Haiti, Miami; Chinatowns; Little Italy, NYC; Koreatown, LA
  • Invasion and Succession: when one culture comes in and takes over an ethnic neighborhood
    • ex: Puerto Rican moving into NY and kicking out the Jews
  • Time-Space Compression: Interaction dependent on connectedness among places
  • Commodification: Giving something monetary value
  • Reterritorialization: With respect to popular culture, when people in a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making their own.

Identity

  • “How we make sense of ourselves”-Gillian Rose
  • Established through:
    • experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections
    • a snapshot of who we are at some point in time
  • Fluid, constantly changing, shifting, and becoming
  • Varying across scales
  • Affects each other across scales
  • Identifying against (defining the other and then defining ourselves as “not the other”)

Race

  • A categorization of humans based on physical appearance such as skin color
  • Social and political constructions
  • Based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others
  • Major element in colonialism and imperialism
  • Typically imposed on people through:
  • Residential segregation
  • Racialized divisions of labor
  • Racial categories defined by governments (like on the census)

Ethnicity

  • A constructed identity that is tied to a place
  • Comes from the idea that people are closely bounded, even related, in a place over time
  • Often a result of migration
  • May change in meaning with migration

Gender

  • A culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women
  • Their characters, roles they play in society, and what they represent
  • Queer Theory: Focuses on the political engagement of queers with the heteronormative which was made by geographers Elder, Knopp, and Nast. Their theory shows that despite people being homosexuals, they are like the heterosexuals, settling in certain neighborhoods of cities
    • e.g. Adams-Morgan and DuPoint Circle in Washington D.C.

Chapter 6: Language

  • A set of sounds and symbols used for communication
  • Language questions are often politicized
  • Language is frequently tied to identity issues, like socioeconomic status
  • Language is a fundamental element of local and national culture
  • language reflects and shapes culture
  • Language shapes our thoughts
  • We use vast vocabularies to define ideas, experiences and feelings;or we create new words
  • Language reflects where a country has been historically, what a culture values, and how people in a culture think
  • Language helps bind cultural identity
  • Language is very personal

Dialect

  • Variations of standard language across regional or ethnic lines
  • Differences in vocabulary, syntax, pronunciation, cadence, and the pace of speech marks the speaker’s dialect
  • Thought of in terms of dialect chains
  • Example(s): Coke vs. Pop vs. Soda, Cantonese and Mandarin, Variations of Italian, Quebecois and French French

Standard Language

  • A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught
  • Sustained by the government
    • Example: Standard Italian is the Italian spoken in florence and tuscany

Language Families: 15 Major Language Families

  1. Indo-European
  2. Afro-Asiatic
  3. Niger-Congo
  4. Saharan
  5. Altaic
  6. Khoisan
  7. Sudanic
  8. Uralic
  9. Sino-Tibetan
  10. Japanese/Korean
  11. Dravidian
  12. Austro-Asiatic
  13. Austronesian
  14. Trans New Guinea and Australian
  15. Amerindian
  • Isogloss: a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic family occurs
  • Soundshift: A slight change in a word across language within a subfamily or throughout a language family
    • Example: Otto (Latin), Octo, Ocho (spanish), Huit
  • Pidgin Languages: A language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary
    • Two languages come together to form a basic language, primarily for trade
      • Example: Frankish
        • Creole Languages: a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
          • Haitian Creole, Louisiana Creole
  • Lingua Franca: A language used among speakers of different languages for trade and commerce
    • Example: English…Swahili(Africa)

Toponyms

  • A place name
  • Imparts a certain character on a place
  • Reflects the social processes in a place
  • Can give a glimpse of the history of a place
  • Carries history in the name
  • Very distinctive
  • Hints at where a culture originated from
  • George Stewart created 10 ways to classify toponyms in America:
    1. Descriptive
      • Examples: Rocky Mountains, Palm Beach
    2. Associative
      • Associate toponyms with what’s going on in it (economic activity
      • Example: Mill Valley, California
    3. Commemorative
      • Named after someone
      • Example: Washington DC; Lincoln and Jefferson

Infant Mortality Rate

  • One of the leading measures of the conditions of a country’s population
    • NOTE: the number is out of a thousand live births
  • Reflects overall health of society, i.e. poor sanitation, malnutrition, low Mother’s Index, etc.
  • IMR in U.S. varies by region (high in South, low in Northeast)
  • Certain contributing factors vary depending on ethnicity or race, e.g. smoking during pregnancy was higher for non-Hispanic whites than African Americans

Cyclic movement

  • (Through activity space) movement away from home for a short period of time
  • Commuting between home and work
  • Seasonal movement (such as snowbirds)
  • Nomadism
  • Not aimless wandering
  • Meat based diet
  • Pastoral-only raise animals
  • Ending back where you started

Periodic Movement

  • Movement away from home for a longer period of time
  • Migrant labor: Mexicans in US
  • Transhumance
  • Military service
  • College
  • Transhumance: ranchers move livestock according to pastoral availability–Mountains–Going where you can

”“US Migration Flows

  • East to West: Louisiana Purchase-Civil War
  • South to North: Civil War-Great Depression (blacks for economic opportunity)
  • North to South: Great Depression-Present
  • West to East:Present(Hispanics)
    • Rust belt-North
    • Sun belt- South
  • Most country’s internal migration is rural to urban

Biggest Jumps in Economy

  • 1870-1880: end of civil war
  • 1960-1980: became a service based economy

Ravenstein’s Laws/Gravity Model

  1. Every Migration flow generates a return or counter migration
  2. The Majority of Migrants move a short distance
  3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
  4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
  5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
  • Chain Migration: Further Migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled
  • Refugees: People who flee across an international boundary lines because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion
  • Internally Displaced Humans- refugees within their home country

Immigration Control in the US

  • Little restriction
  • Quotas by nationality
  • Selective immigration

Chapter 4 & 5:

  • Anabaptists
    • Mennonites- dispersed
    • Amish-strictest(no electricity at all), Family Farms, Pennsylvania, Ohio
    • Hutterites-live communally, live in Northwest and Canada, accept technology for work
  • Local Culture: A group in a particular place that sees itself as a community, shares experiences, customs, and traits and customs to distinguish the group from others
  • Folk Cultures: cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of typically small, traditional communities
  • Material Culture: Constructed items, frequently expressing nonmaterial culture such as crucifixes, dream catchers, and the like.

The material culture of a group includes things they construct

Diffusion of Pop Culture

  • Previously, innovations such as agriculture had taken as much as 10,000 years to diffuse around the world.
  • More recently, the Industrial Revolution was measured over the course of 100 years or more
  • Even more recently in the past century, the pace of diffusion has shrunk down to months, weeks, and even days
  • Distance decay has been changed by the development of transportation and communication technologies
    • David Harvey uses time-space compression to explain how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication technologies
    • It is now how connected cities are that affect the rate of diffusion rather than the distance between places.
    • Technologies such as airplanes, e-mail, wireless connections, and the telephone all help connect places.
    • Places that lack transportation and communications technologies are now removed from interconnected places more than ever

Preserving Local Cultures

  • To force people of indigenous cultures to adopt dominant cultures
  • Preservation of Customs: practices that people routinely follow
  • Preserving Boundaries to keep other cultures out (AKA: Isolation)
  • Avoiding Cultural Appropriation: to keep control over their own culture
  • Importance of place
  • Example: The text focuses on one local culture which is conspicuous in its in its attempts to lessen the influence of foreign popular culture by controlling its cultural media outlets and industries. It’s France.

Neolocalism

  • The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
  • Example: Little Sweden in Lindsborg, Kansas
  • Makkah Indians seeking to revive whale hunt
  • Reviving minority languages
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods: Local cultures within cities
    • Example: East Harlem, NYC; Little Havana and Little Haiti, Miami; Chinatowns; Little Italy, NYC; Koreatown, LA
  • Invasion and Succession: when one culture comes in and takes over an ethnic neighborhood
    • ex: Puerto Rican moving into NY and kicking out the Jews
  • Time-Space Compression: Interaction dependent on connectedness among places
  • Commodification: Giving something monetary value
  • Reterritorialization: With respect to popular culture, when people in a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making their own.

Identity

  • “How we make sense of ourselves”-Gillian Rose
  • Established through:
    • experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections
    • a snapshot of who we are at some point in time
  • Fluid, constantly changing, shifting, and becoming
  • Varying across scales
  • Affects each other across scales
  • Identifying against (defining the other and then defining ourselves as “not the other”)

Race

  • A categorization of humans based on physical appearance such as skin color
  • Social and political constructions
  • Based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others
  • Major element in colonialism and imperialism
  • Typically imposed on people through:
  • Residential segregation
  • Racialized divisions of labor
  • Racial categories defined by governments (like on the census)

Ethnicity

  • A constructed identity that is tied to a place
  • Comes from the idea that people are closely bounded, even related, in a place over time
  • Often a result of migration
  • May change in meaning with migration

Gender

  • A culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women
  • Their characters, roles they play in society, and what they represent
  • Queer Theory: Focuses on the political engagement of queers with the heteronormative which was made by geographers Elder, Knopp, and Nast. Their theory shows that despite people being homosexuals, they are like the heterosexuals, settling in certain neighborhoods of cities
    • e.g. Adams-Morgan and DuPoint Circle in Washington D.C.

Chapter 6: Language

  • A set of sounds and symbols used for communication
  • Language questions are often politicized
  • Language is frequently tied to identity issues, like socioeconomic status
  • Language is a fundamental element of local and national culture
  • language reflects and shapes culture
  • Language shapes our thoughts
  • We use vast vocabularies to define ideas, experiences and feelings;or we create new words
  • Language reflects where a country has been historically, what a culture values, and how people in a culture think
  • Language helps bind cultural identity
  • Language is very personal

Dialect

  • Variations of standard language across regional or ethnic lines
  • Differences in vocabulary, syntax, pronunciation, cadence, and the pace of speech marks the speaker’s dialect
  • Thought of in terms of dialect chains
  • Example(s): Coke vs. Pop vs. Soda, Cantonese and Mandarin, Variations of Italian, Quebecois and French French

Standard Language

  • A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught
  • Sustained by the government
    • Example: Standard Italian is the Italian spoken in florence and tuscany

Language Families: 15 Major Language Families

  1. Indo-European
  2. Afro-Asiatic
  3. Niger-Congo
  4. Saharan
  5. Altaic
  6. Khoisan
  7. Sudanic
  8. Uralic
  9. Sino-Tibetan
  10. Japanese/Korean
  11. Dravidian
  12. Austro-Asiatic
  13. Austronesian
  14. Trans New Guinea and Australian
  15. Amerindian
  • Isogloss: a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic family occurs
  • Soundshift: A slight change in a word across language within a subfamily or throughout a language family
    • Example: Otto (Latin), Octo, Ocho (spanish), Huit
  • Pidgin Languages: A language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary
    • Two languages come together to form a basic language, primarily for trade
      • Example: Frankish
        • Creole Languages: a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
          • Haitian Creole, Louisiana Creole
  • Lingua Franca: A language used among speakers of different languages for trade and commerce
    • Example: English…Swahili(Africa)

Toponyms

  • A place name
  • Imparts a certain character on a place
  • Reflects the social processes in a place
  • Can give a glimpse of the history of a place
  • Carries history in the name
  • Very distinctive
  • Hints at where a culture originated from
  • George Stewart created 10 ways to classify toponyms in America:
    1. Descriptive
      • Examples: Rocky Mountains, Palm Beach
    2. Associative
      • Associate toponyms with what’s going on in it (economic activity
      • Example: Mill Valley, California
    3. Commemorative
      • Named after someone
      • Example: Washington DC; Lincoln and Jefferson

Infant Mortality Rate

  • One of the leading measures of the conditions of a country’s population
    • NOTE: the number is out of a thousand live births
  • Reflects overall health of society, i.e. poor sanitation, malnutrition, low Mother’s Index, etc.
  • IMR in U.S. varies by region (high in South, low in Northeast)
  • Certain contributing factors vary depending on ethnicity or race, e.g. smoking during pregnancy was higher for non-Hispanic whites than African Americans

Cyclic movement

  • (Through activity space) movement away from home for a short period of time
  • Commuting between home and work
  • Seasonal movement (such as snowbirds)
  • Nomadism
  • Not aimless wandering
  • Meat based diet
  • Pastoral-only raise animals
  • Ending back where you started

Periodic Movement

  • Movement away from home for a longer period of time
  • Migrant labor: Mexicans in US
  • Transhumance
  • Military service
  • College
  • Transhumance: ranchers move livestock according to pastoral availability–Mountains–Going where you can

”“US Migration Flows

  • East to West: Louisiana Purchase-Civil War
  • South to North: Civil War-Great Depression (blacks for economic opportunity)
  • North to South: Great Depression-Present
  • West to East:Present(Hispanics)
    • Rust belt-North
    • Sun belt- South
  • Most country’s internal migration is rural to urban

Biggest Jumps in Economy

  • 1870-1880: end of civil war
  • 1960-1980: became a service based economy

Ravenstein’s Laws/Gravity Model

  1. Every Migration flow generates a return or counter migration
  2. The Majority of Migrants move a short distance
  3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
  4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
  5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
  • Chain Migration: Further Migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled
  • Refugees: People who flee across an international boundary lines because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion
  • Internally Displaced Humans- refugees within their home country

Immigration Control in the US

  • Little restriction
  • Quotas by nationality
  • Selective immigration

Chapter 4 & 5:

  • Anabaptists
    • Mennonites- dispersed
    • Amish-strictest(no electricity at all), Family Farms, Pennsylvania, Ohio
    • Hutterites-live communally, live in Northwest and Canada, accept technology for work
  • Local Culture: A group in a particular place that sees itself as a community, shares experiences, customs, and traits and customs to distinguish the group from others
  • Folk Cultures: cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of typically small, traditional communities
  • Material Culture: Constructed items, frequently expressing nonmaterial culture such as crucifixes, dream catchers, and the like.

The material culture of a group includes things they construct

Diffusion of Pop Culture

  • Previously, innovations such as agriculture had taken as much as 10,000 years to diffuse around the world.
  • More recently, the Industrial Revolution was measured over the course of 100 years or more
  • Even more recently in the past century, the pace of diffusion has shrunk down to months, weeks, and even days
  • Distance decay has been changed by the development of transportation and communication technologies
    • David Harvey uses time-space compression to explain how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication technologies
    • It is now how connected cities are that affect the rate of diffusion rather than the distance between places.
    • Technologies such as airplanes, e-mail, wireless connections, and the telephone all help connect places.
    • Places that lack transportation and communications technologies are now removed from interconnected places more than ever

Preserving Local Cultures

  • To force people of indigenous cultures to adopt dominant cultures
  • Preservation of Customs: practices that people routinely follow
  • Preserving Boundaries to keep other cultures out (AKA: Isolation)
  • Avoiding Cultural Appropriation: to keep control over their own culture
  • Importance of place
  • Example: The text focuses on one local culture which is conspicuous in its in its attempts to lessen the influence of foreign popular culture by controlling its cultural media outlets and industries. It’s France.

Neolocalism

  • The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
  • Example: Little Sweden in Lindsborg, Kansas
  • Makkah Indians seeking to revive whale hunt
  • Reviving minority languages
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods: Local cultures within cities
    • Example: East Harlem, NYC; Little Havana and Little Haiti, Miami; Chinatowns; Little Italy, NYC; Koreatown, LA
  • Invasion and Succession: when one culture comes in and takes over an ethnic neighborhood
    • ex: Puerto Rican moving into NY and kicking out the Jews
  • Time-Space Compression: Interaction dependent on connectedness among places
  • Commodification: Giving something monetary value
  • Reterritorialization: With respect to popular culture, when people in a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making their own.

Identity

  • “How we make sense of ourselves”-Gillian Rose
  • Established through:
    • experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections
    • a snapshot of who we are at some point in time
  • Fluid, constantly changing, shifting, and becoming
  • Varying across scales
  • Affects each other across scales
  • Identifying against (defining the other and then defining ourselves as “not the other”)

Race

  • A categorization of humans based on physical appearance such as skin color
  • Social and political constructions
  • Based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others
  • Major element in colonialism and imperialism
  • Typically imposed on people through:
  • Residential segregation
  • Racialized divisions of labor
  • Racial categories defined by governments (like on the census)

Ethnicity

  • A constructed identity that is tied to a place
  • Comes from the idea that people are closely bounded, even related, in a place over time
  • Often a result of migration
  • May change in meaning with migration

Gender

  • A culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women
  • Their characters, roles they play in society, and what they represent
  • Queer Theory: Focuses on the political engagement of queers with the heteronormative which was made by geographers Elder, Knopp, and Nast. Their theory shows that despite people being homosexuals, they are like the heterosexuals, settling in certain neighborhoods of cities
    • e.g. Adams-Morgan and DuPoint Circle in Washington D.C.

Chapter 6: Language

  • A set of sounds and symbols used for communication
  • Language questions are often politicized
  • Language is frequently tied to identity issues, like socioeconomic status
  • Language is a fundamental element of local and national culture
  • language reflects and shapes culture
  • Language shapes our thoughts
  • We use vast vocabularies to define ideas, experiences and feelings;or we create new words
  • Language reflects where a country has been historically, what a culture values, and how people in a culture think
  • Language helps bind cultural identity
  • Language is very personal

Dialect

  • Variations of standard language across regional or ethnic lines
  • Differences in vocabulary, syntax, pronunciation, cadence, and the pace of speech marks the speaker’s dialect
  • Thought of in terms of dialect chains
  • Example(s): Coke vs. Pop vs. Soda, Cantonese and Mandarin, Variations of Italian, Quebecois and French French

Standard Language

  • A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught
  • Sustained by the government
    • Example: Standard Italian is the Italian spoken in florence and tuscany

Language Families: 15 Major Language Families

  1. Indo-European
  2. Afro-Asiatic
  3. Niger-Congo
  4. Saharan
  5. Altaic
  6. Khoisan
  7. Sudanic
  8. Uralic
  9. Sino-Tibetan
  10. Japanese/Korean
  11. Dravidian
  12. Austro-Asiatic
  13. Austronesian
  14. Trans New Guinea and Australian
  15. Amerindian
  • Isogloss: a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic family occurs
  • Soundshift: A slight change in a word across language within a subfamily or throughout a language family
    • Example: Otto (Latin), Octo, Ocho (spanish), Huit
  • Pidgin Languages: A language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary
    • Two languages come together to form a basic language, primarily for trade
      • Example: Frankish
        • Creole Languages: a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
          • Haitian Creole, Louisiana Creole
  • Lingua Franca: A language used among speakers of different languages for trade and commerce
    • Example: English…Swahili(Africa)

Toponyms

  • A place name
  • Imparts a certain character on a place
  • Reflects the social processes in a place
  • Can give a glimpse of the history of a place
  • Carries history in the name
  • Very distinctive
  • Hints at where a culture originated from
  • George Stewart created 10 ways to classify toponyms in America:
    1. Descriptive
      • Examples: Rocky Mountains, Palm Beach
    2. Associative
      • Associate toponyms with what’s going on in it (economic activity
      • Example: Mill Valley, California
    3. Commemorative
      • Named after someone
      • Example: Washington DC; Lincoln and Jefferson

Infant Mortality Rate

  • One of the leading measures of the conditions of a country’s population
    • NOTE: the number is out of a thousand live births
  • Reflects overall health of society, i.e. poor sanitation, malnutrition, low Mother’s Index, etc.
  • IMR in U.S. varies by region (high in South, low in Northeast)
  • Certain contributing factors vary depending on ethnicity or race, e.g. smoking during pregnancy was higher for non-Hispanic whites than African Americans

Cyclic movement

  • (Through activity space) movement away from home for a short period of time
  • Commuting between home and work
  • Seasonal movement (such as snowbirds)
  • Nomadism
  • Not aimless wandering
  • Meat based diet
  • Pastoral-only raise animals
  • Ending back where you started

Periodic Movement

  • Movement away from home for a longer period of time
  • Migrant labor: Mexicans in US
  • Transhumance
  • Military service
  • College
  • Transhumance: ranchers move livestock according to pastoral availability–Mountains–Going where you can

”“US Migration Flows

  • East to West: Louisiana Purchase-Civil War
  • South to North: Civil War-Great Depression (blacks for economic opportunity)
  • North to South: Great Depression-Present
  • West to East:Present(Hispanics)
    • Rust belt-North
    • Sun belt- South
  • Most country’s internal migration is rural to urban

Biggest Jumps in Economy

  • 1870-1880: end of civil war
  • 1960-1980: became a service based economy

Ravenstein’s Laws/Gravity Model

  1. Every Migration flow generates a return or counter migration
  2. The Majority of Migrants move a short distance
  3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
  4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
  5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
  • Chain Migration: Further Migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled
  • Refugees: People who flee across an international boundary lines because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion
  • Internally Displaced Humans- refugees within their home country

Immigration Control in the US

  • Little restriction
  • Quotas by nationality
  • Selective immigration

Chapter 4 & 5:

  • Anabaptists
    • Mennonites- dispersed
    • Amish-strictest(no electricity at all), Family Farms, Pennsylvania, Ohio
    • Hutterites-live communally, live in Northwest and Canada, accept technology for work
  • Local Culture: A group in a particular place that sees itself as a community, shares experiences, customs, and traits and customs to distinguish the group from others
  • Folk Cultures: cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of typically small, traditional communities
  • Material Culture: Constructed items, frequently expressing nonmaterial culture such as crucifixes, dream catchers, and the like.

The material culture of a group includes things they construct

Diffusion of Pop Culture

  • Previously, innovations such as agriculture had taken as much as 10,000 years to diffuse around the world.
  • More recently, the Industrial Revolution was measured over the course of 100 years or more
  • Even more recently in the past century, the pace of diffusion has shrunk down to months, weeks, and even days
  • Distance decay has been changed by the development of transportation and communication technologies
    • David Harvey uses time-space compression to explain how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication technologies
    • It is now how connected cities are that affect the rate of diffusion rather than the distance between places.
    • Technologies such as airplanes, e-mail, wireless connections, and the telephone all help connect places.
    • Places that lack transportation and communications technologies are now removed from interconnected places more than ever

Preserving Local Cultures

  • To force people of indigenous cultures to adopt dominant cultures
  • Preservation of Customs: practices that people routinely follow
  • Preserving Boundaries to keep other cultures out (AKA: Isolation)
  • Avoiding Cultural Appropriation: to keep control over their own culture
  • Importance of place
  • Example: The text focuses on one local culture which is conspicuous in its in its attempts to lessen the influence of foreign popular culture by controlling its cultural media outlets and industries. It’s France.

Neolocalism

  • The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
  • Example: Little Sweden in Lindsborg, Kansas
  • Makkah Indians seeking to revive whale hunt
  • Reviving minority languages
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods: Local cultures within cities
    • Example: East Harlem, NYC; Little Havana and Little Haiti, Miami; Chinatowns; Little Italy, NYC; Koreatown, LA
  • Invasion and Succession: when one culture comes in and takes over an ethnic neighborhood
    • ex: Puerto Rican moving into NY and kicking out the Jews
  • Time-Space Compression: Interaction dependent on connectedness among places
  • Commodification: Giving something monetary value
  • Reterritorialization: With respect to popular culture, when people in a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making their own.

Identity

  • “How we make sense of ourselves”-Gillian Rose
  • Established through:
    • experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections
    • a snapshot of who we are at some point in time
  • Fluid, constantly changing, shifting, and becoming
  • Varying across scales
  • Affects each other across scales
  • Identifying against (defining the other and then defining ourselves as “not the other”)

Race

  • A categorization of humans based on physical appearance such as skin color
  • Social and political constructions
  • Based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others
  • Major element in colonialism and imperialism
  • Typically imposed on people through:
  • Residential segregation
  • Racialized divisions of labor
  • Racial categories defined by governments (like on the census)

Ethnicity

  • A constructed identity that is tied to a place
  • Comes from the idea that people are closely bounded, even related, in a place over time
  • Often a result of migration
  • May change in meaning with migration

Gender

  • A culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women
  • Their characters, roles they play in society, and what they represent
  • Queer Theory: Focuses on the political engagement of queers with the heteronormative which was made by geographers Elder, Knopp, and Nast. Their theory shows that despite people being homosexuals, they are like the heterosexuals, settling in certain neighborhoods of cities
    • e.g. Adams-Morgan and DuPoint Circle in Washington D.C.

Chapter 6: Language

  • A set of sounds and symbols used for communication
  • Language questions are often politicized
  • Language is frequently tied to identity issues, like socioeconomic status
  • Language is a fundamental element of local and national culture
  • language reflects and shapes culture
  • Language shapes our thoughts
  • We use vast vocabularies to define ideas, experiences and feelings;or we create new words
  • Language reflects where a country has been historically, what a culture values, and how people in a culture think
  • Language helps bind cultural identity
  • Language is very personal

Dialect

  • Variations of standard language across regional or ethnic lines
  • Differences in vocabulary, syntax, pronunciation, cadence, and the pace of speech marks the speaker’s dialect
  • Thought of in terms of dialect chains
  • Example(s): Coke vs. Pop vs. Soda, Cantonese and Mandarin, Variations of Italian, Quebecois and French French

Standard Language

  • A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught
  • Sustained by the government
    • Example: Standard Italian is the Italian spoken in florence and tuscany

Language Families: 15 Major Language Families

  1. Indo-European
  2. Afro-Asiatic
  3. Niger-Congo
  4. Saharan
  5. Altaic
  6. Khoisan
  7. Sudanic
  8. Uralic
  9. Sino-Tibetan
  10. Japanese/Korean
  11. Dravidian
  12. Austro-Asiatic
  13. Austronesian
  14. Trans New Guinea and Australian
  15. Amerindian
  • Isogloss: a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic family occurs
  • Soundshift: A slight change in a word across language within a subfamily or throughout a language family
    • Example: Otto (Latin), Octo, Ocho (spanish), Huit
  • Pidgin Languages: A language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary
    • Two languages come together to form a basic language, primarily for trade
      • Example: Frankish
        • Creole Languages: a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
          • Haitian Creole, Louisiana Creole
  • Lingua Franca: A language used among speakers of different languages for trade and commerce
    • Example: English…Swahili(Africa)

Toponyms

  • A place name
  • Imparts a certain character on a place
  • Reflects the social processes in a place
  • Can give a glimpse of the history of a place
  • Carries history in the name
  • Very distinctive
  • Hints at where a culture originated from
  • George Stewart created 10 ways to classify toponyms in America:
    1. Descriptive
      • Examples: Rocky Mountains, Palm Beach
    2. Associative
      • Associate toponyms with what’s going on in it (economic activity
      • Example: Mill Valley, California
    3. Commemorative
      • Named after someone
      • Example: Washington DC; Lincoln and Jefferson

Infant Mortality Rate

  • One of the leading measures of the conditions of a country’s population
    • NOTE: the number is out of a thousand live births
  • Reflects overall health of society, i.e. poor sanitation, malnutrition, low Mother’s Index, etc.
  • IMR in U.S. varies by region (high in South, low in Northeast)
  • Certain contributing factors vary depending on ethnicity or race, e.g. smoking during pregnancy was higher for non-Hispanic whites than African Americans

Cyclic movement

  • (Through activity space) movement away from home for a short period of time
  • Commuting between home and work
  • Seasonal movement (such as snowbirds)
  • Nomadism
  • Not aimless wandering
  • Meat based diet
  • Pastoral-only raise animals
  • Ending back where you started

Periodic Movement

  • Movement away from home for a longer period of time
  • Migrant labor: Mexicans in US
  • Transhumance
  • Military service
  • College
  • Transhumance: ranchers move livestock according to pastoral availability–Mountains–Going where you can

”“US Migration Flows

  • East to West: Louisiana Purchase-Civil War
  • South to North: Civil War-Great Depression (blacks for economic opportunity)
  • North to South: Great Depression-Present
  • West to East:Present(Hispanics)
    • Rust belt-North
    • Sun belt- South
  • Most country’s internal migration is rural to urban

Biggest Jumps in Economy

  • 1870-1880: end of civil war
  • 1960-1980: became a service based economy

Ravenstein’s Laws/Gravity Model

  1. Every Migration flow generates a return or counter migration
  2. The Majority of Migrants move a short distance
  3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
  4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
  5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
  • Chain Migration: Further Migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled
  • Refugees: People who flee across an international boundary lines because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion
  • Internally Displaced Humans- refugees within their home country

Immigration Control in the US

  • Little restriction
  • Quotas by nationality
  • Selective immigration

Chapter 4 & 5:

  • Anabaptists
    • Mennonites- dispersed
    • Amish-strictest(no electricity at all), Family Farms, Pennsylvania, Ohio
    • Hutterites-live communally, live in Northwest and Canada, accept technology for work
  • Local Culture: A group in a particular place that sees itself as a community, shares experiences, customs, and traits and customs to distinguish the group from others
  • Folk Cultures: cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of typically small, traditional communities
  • Material Culture: Constructed items, frequently expressing nonmaterial culture such as crucifixes, dream catchers, and the like.

The material culture of a group includes things they construct

Diffusion of Pop Culture

  • Previously, innovations such as agriculture had taken as much as 10,000 years to diffuse around the world.
  • More recently, the Industrial Revolution was measured over the course of 100 years or more
  • Even more recently in the past century, the pace of diffusion has shrunk down to months, weeks, and even days
  • Distance decay has been changed by the development of transportation and communication technologies
    • David Harvey uses time-space compression to explain how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication technologies
    • It is now how connected cities are that affect the rate of diffusion rather than the distance between places.
    • Technologies such as airplanes, e-mail, wireless connections, and the telephone all help connect places.
    • Places that lack transportation and communications technologies are now removed from interconnected places more than ever

Preserving Local Cultures

  • To force people of indigenous cultures to adopt dominant cultures
  • Preservation of Customs: practices that people routinely follow
  • Preserving Boundaries to keep other cultures out (AKA: Isolation)
  • Avoiding Cultural Appropriation: to keep control over their own culture
  • Importance of place
  • Example: The text focuses on one local culture which is conspicuous in its in its attempts to lessen the influence of foreign popular culture by controlling its cultural media outlets and industries. It’s France.

Neolocalism

  • The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
  • Example: Little Sweden in Lindsborg, Kansas
  • Makkah Indians seeking to revive whale hunt
  • Reviving minority languages
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods: Local cultures within cities
    • Example: East Harlem, NYC; Little Havana and Little Haiti, Miami; Chinatowns; Little Italy, NYC; Koreatown, LA
  • Invasion and Succession: when one culture comes in and takes over an ethnic neighborhood
    • ex: Puerto Rican moving into NY and kicking out the Jews
  • Time-Space Compression: Interaction dependent on connectedness among places
  • Commodification: Giving something monetary value
  • Reterritorialization: With respect to popular culture, when people in a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making their own.

Identity

  • “How we make sense of ourselves”-Gillian Rose
  • Established through:
    • experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections
    • a snapshot of who we are at some point in time
  • Fluid, constantly changing, shifting, and becoming
  • Varying across scales
  • Affects each other across scales
  • Identifying against (defining the other and then defining ourselves as “not the other”)

Race

  • A categorization of humans based on physical appearance such as skin color
  • Social and political constructions
  • Based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others
  • Major element in colonialism and imperialism
  • Typically imposed on people through:
  • Residential segregation
  • Racialized divisions of labor
  • Racial categories defined by governments (like on the census)

Ethnicity

  • A constructed identity that is tied to a place
  • Comes from the idea that people are closely bounded, even related, in a place over time
  • Often a result of migration
  • May change in meaning with migration

Gender

  • A culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women
  • Their characters, roles they play in society, and what they represent
  • Queer Theory: Focuses on the political engagement of queers with the heteronormative which was made by geographers Elder, Knopp, and Nast. Their theory shows that despite people being homosexuals, they are like the heterosexuals, settling in certain neighborhoods of cities
    • e.g. Adams-Morgan and DuPoint Circle in Washington D.C.

Chapter 6: Language

  • A set of sounds and symbols used for communication
  • Language questions are often politicized
  • Language is frequently tied to identity issues, like socioeconomic status
  • Language is a fundamental element of local and national culture
  • language reflects and shapes culture
  • Language shapes our thoughts
  • We use vast vocabularies to define ideas, experiences and feelings;or we create new words
  • Language reflects where a country has been historically, what a culture values, and how people in a culture think
  • Language helps bind cultural identity
  • Language is very personal

Dialect

  • Variations of standard language across regional or ethnic lines
  • Differences in vocabulary, syntax, pronunciation, cadence, and the pace of speech marks the speaker’s dialect
  • Thought of in terms of dialect chains
  • Example(s): Coke vs. Pop vs. Soda, Cantonese and Mandarin, Variations of Italian, Quebecois and French French

Standard Language

  • A language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught
  • Sustained by the government
    • Example: Standard Italian is the Italian spoken in florence and tuscany

Language Families: 15 Major Language Families

  1. Indo-European
  2. Afro-Asiatic
  3. Niger-Congo
  4. Saharan
  5. Altaic
  6. Khoisan
  7. Sudanic
  8. Uralic
  9. Sino-Tibetan
  10. Japanese/Korean
  11. Dravidian
  12. Austro-Asiatic
  13. Austronesian
  14. Trans New Guinea and Australian
  15. Amerindian
  • Isogloss: a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic family occurs
  • Soundshift: A slight change in a word across language within a subfamily or throughout a language family
    • Example: Otto (Latin), Octo, Ocho (spanish), Huit
  • Pidgin Languages: A language created when people combine parts of two or more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary
    • Two languages come together to form a basic language, primarily for trade
      • Example: Frankish
        • Creole Languages: a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
          • Haitian Creole, Louisiana Creole
  • Lingua Franca: A language used among speakers of different languages for trade and commerce
    • Example: English…Swahili(Africa)

Toponyms

  • A place name
  • Imparts a certain character on a place
  • Reflects the social processes in a place
  • Can give a glimpse of the history of a place
  • Carries history in the name
  • Very distinctive
  • Hints at where a culture originated from
  • George Stewart created 10 ways to classify toponyms in America:
    1. Descriptive
      • Examples: Rocky Mountains, Palm Beach
    2. Associative
      • Associate toponyms with what’s going on in it (economic activity
      • Example: Mill Valley, California
    3. Commemorative
      • Named after someone
      • Example: Washington DC; Lincoln and Jefferson

Bibliography

1) Fouberg, Erin, Alexander, Murphy, et al. People, Places, and Culture, 9th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, inc, 2009. Hardcover Textbook.


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