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Classical Civilization

Abortion

Even in ancient times Abortion was controversial. Professional physicians took the “Hippocratic Oath” and would include a part about not preforming abortion. But there are texts that point to prostitutes getting abortions quite commonly. In Athens, abortion was considered a crime against your husband, since the child could have been male (no way to tell in ancient times), and therefor could have inherited everything.

The Stoics (a prominent religio-philosophical group from ancient times) believed that the fetus was a plant, and did not become an animal until birth when it started breathing. So because the creature was not a “breathing animal” it made abortion ok in their eyes. During the early Roman empire abortion was common, and there are no evidence of laws against it during the time of the Roman republic. They would even preform abortion in order to keep their figures.

Galen, the human Medical “god” of the classical world, offers many ways to abort babies with oral or vaginal plant application. And he personally agreed with abortion if the womans life was in danger.

The first Roman ban on abortion was in 211 AD. So abortion was legal when Jesus was born, no more “what if Jesus had been aborted”, because he wasn't.

The Academy

The Academy was a public gymnasium at Athens, sacred to the god Academus. It gave its name to Plato's school in the 4th century, and remained in the similar philosophical hands until the 1st century. After Plato came: Speusippus, Xenocrates, Polemon & Crates. The academy disintegrated in 87 BC, after it became a bunch of refugees from Athens who were challenged by Antiochus.

Achilles

Son of Peleus & Thetis, he was the greatest Greek hero of the Trojan war. And is the central character of Homer's Iliad. The source of his name is not certain, but is thought to be ancient Mycenaean Greek for “Grief to the Army”. No one is really certain where he originates, but their were many hero cults focused around him. In Homer's story, he is king of Phtia, in southern Thessaly.

Achilles preparing to drag his enemy behind a chariot (yeah, his enemy is the black guy) i42.tinypic.com_2ho9t7s.jpg

Achilles fits the idea of Homer's “hero” in every way. And his destruction of Hector and his people (the black ones on the vase) was carried out so violently to quench a thirst for revenge, that he went to far at the end with Hector's dead body. And all over a stolen Concubine (again, not one that Hector stole). What makes Achilles special is his active-extremist “hero” code, mixed with his insight and self realization. Unlike Hector, Achilles realizes he will soon die as well. He is something like the modern “OGs” of gangs like the Crips and the Bloods. When all the intelligent leaders were taken from the Hispanic and black communities, what was left was a gap of children that had no philosophical mind, and now no intellectual elders to guide them. So they went to prove themselves, and the only system they had to evaluate themselves against was the prison system, so now charges are almost like badges. But in the end, the gang members (if they live to be old enough) usually realize that living fast, means dying fast. And Achilles had this realization, and was said to have rather lived quietly that continue carrying out the war against the Trojans, but his heroic vengeful rage made him continue.

Ancient Greece

Ancient Macedonia

Philip II

  • Philip II in the Perspective of Alexander

Born in 356 BC Alexander was the son of a Molossian princess named Olympias, and his father was King Philip the II of Macedonia. The kingdom of Macedonia actually contained 3 regions, due to expansions by Philip II during this time. The Kingdom of Macedonia itself, the Old Greek world and Persia. Before Philip II took charge Macedonia was mostly a herding and farming community, that lived in mountain strongholds and stayed hidden for safety. After the reign of Philip II they were a formidable military force, and had a booming economy. The economy itself helped to spread the fame of Macedonia, as they had not had a coinage before, and now were producing 1,000 silver talents a year. Which would make them near equal to Athens or Sparta at their prime. And Alexander worked very hard during his lifetime to strike his father from the history book (not literally, just in conversation) and boast about himself.

Philip II had also set up a structure for the kingdom. The royal “order” (who gets to be king) had been established for a while, but there were still outside “Royal” families. So Philip II organized these families in ways where they felt they still had noble power, and their children would preform small tasks for the kingdom as “pages”, during which time they were being groomed for “companion” status. Then he took the higher class families from the lower class parts of Macedonia, and gave them small noble power as well. Which all basically served to make a more solid and proud nation. He was trying to make a more cultured (ultimately “more Greek” ) Macedonia.

The Companions came to be a strong backbone for Macedonia, and it's military. Macedonia, because the men were awarded land that must have supported tens of thousands of people, meaning their word was law for anyone living there. And, they served as an elite cavalry, body guard, and advisers (like the presidential cabinet of today). There were also men in the infantry, who were given the honorific title of “foot companion”, and this structure as a whole served as a structure for the Macedonian people. Those closest to the king, got the most respect in the community.

Philip II created a thriving economy and secure border, therefor creating an ancient “baby boom”. No one knows for certain how many Macedonians there were at any one time, but some historians suggest that there were around 500,000 by the end of Philip II's rule, and considerably more by the end of Alexander's.

Philip II was king, but only in title. He was actually holding the spot for a relatives young son. But during this time, Philip II so strengthened Meacedon's military, and ingrained it so deeply into the political, religious and judicial systems, that the army basically had the right to choose the king when it came right down to it. If they were to kill Philip II and put the young relative in charge, it would be done. If they didn't want the young relative to take the throne when he came of age, he wouldn't. This was basically possible because at the time their were no rules for a king, and his limits were what he could get away with. And while Philip II was king, he got away with choosing every nobles position (or at least chose the people that chose their place), while creating a stronger military, state and economy.

Athens had been working on a similar type of system (but “better” according to history, because there was no king), and was gathering city states together for communal purposes, but was mainly achieving Athenian goals. Philip II came through and took over some of the Greek city states, defeating the league Athens had created. Around this time Philip II hired Aristotle to tutor his son Alexander.

Alexander The Great

From the time if the reign of Alexander, we find inscribed tablets listing the names of priests who guide the cult of the god Asclepius (aka Ancient Egyptian Imhotep).

Ancient Egypt

The Ancient Africans of the Nile valley believed that knowledge was the way to life and the way to life led directly to the divine. Inner knowledge came from the search for the divine and wisdom was the result of inner knowledge.

By the time the Greeks found Egypt, the seat of Ancient Wisdom and Knowledge, the Ancient Egyptian philosophers had been reflecting on the nature of human relationships and the meaning of life for several thousand years. The works of these early African thinkers were referred to by the Egyptians as “Seboyet”

This thread will be about Seboyet, the base of Egyptian culture, society, tradition and religion.

Imotep… 2700 BC The first person to have his individual life remembered, and the first lower class person known to have been promoted to god status after his death.

Also the first person recorded to have dealt with questions of: space, time, volume, the nature of illness, physical and mental disease, and immorality. The FIRST philosopher in human history.

But before we get into extensive detail about him, we must first discuss the culture surrounding him.

To understand how Egyptians saw the world, you must understand “spiritual interconnections”.

To Egyptians, everything in the world was connected. You effect me, I effect you. And further, we effect them, and they effect us. On and on to the point of planets and stars being effected by our individual actions. Almost as if we are all on one big spider web, and each vibration we make as we move has a cosmic action, and not only that, our vibrations collect to form larger and stronger actions than we could have ever thought possible as an individual.

Also, it was held that agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry represented the most basic relationships one could have with nature or “the gods”, therefor, the farmer is more divine than the merchant.

The Ancient Egyptians saw “Ra” as the creator of the universe, and “AtumRa” was the god who created himself before creating the universe. This view is more similar to the Big Bang theory than say, a mono theistic god, in the sense that Ra is one thing that all things burst forth from, and Ra most purely symbolizes Atomic light (like the light from the sun), which would have been present in the big bang (evidence of leftovers: stars, sun, etc).

Ra also symbolizes the sun. All life on Earth (except for small deep sea pockets) survive on plants and bacteria that create food and energy for this planet by collecting solar energy. So the Ancient Egyptians saw Ra as a force that flowed in and out of everything (like calories kinda).

Now, from this understanding comes another understanding.

Because 1 initial explosion created the universe, the universe is NOT a collection of planets, stars and floating rocks.

The universe is ONE GIANT thing. It is constantly still happening (an explosion that hasn't stopped yet) and we are all a part of it (each and every star, planet and stone). We are the last embers of a forest fire that has been raging for billions of years.

So, even though we see the Egyptians as Polytheistic, if you put all the gods together like a puzzle, they actually come together (like a story) to describe one “god” (the universe).

Now, this is where it gets hard to follow. You may FEEL like you are following, but you have to come at this with an open mind.

Harmony. In song, harmony is achieved when 2 people hit the same note/pitch at the same time. In Africa, people use harmony in dance, music and solo performances (they can harmonize different parts of their body in song or dance)

This definition carries on outside of song. Harmony is achieved when 2 people want the same thing at the same time.

To help you understand: In the Christian Bible, it says that when 2 or more people are gathered in gods name, he is present. If you think about this rationally, all it really means is “when 2 people work together, they can do more than they ever could have as individuals”.

This is a HUGE part of the African mentality. A perfect example of this is modern day “Ujamaa”. And in Africa people understand that harmony comes through movement (which is why you see tribes doing weird dances for fun on shows like “An Idiot Abroad” )

Now, with this understanding of the Universe, and this understanding of harmony, I want to give an example so that you can understand the impact of these beliefs.

Western Culture (which historically has been white) conquers… African culture, absorbs.

The universe is one thing, the world is one thing, humanity is one thing. As the white man conquers, the world learns his secrets (just as western civilization stole the secrets of Ancient Egypt). Time is cyclical.

All knowledge is absorbed, and almost no outsiders are rejected by popular culture.

Ok, we are getting closer to understanding the way these philosophers saw the world… This next one is MAJOR.

I will start with an example. The Native American Indians. They did not need to store things, because they had their herds to follow. They had no need for war, because there was nothing to take (they did have small feuds, but nothing like the war of white culture).

Western Culture sees everything as “Past, Present, Future”.

Ancient Cultures (and some that still exist) saw things as “Orientational, Ancestral or Habitual.”

Habitual is easy to understand. It is something you must do, or something you personally do in modern times.

Orientational. Human beings are oriented towards posterity. So, this can be seen as things done for children, society, the betterment of the world. (a different kind of future than western culture worries about)

Ancestral. Things that are done because they were always done that way and that's how it works (stories passed down, etc). A view of the “past” that is much less forgetful than our western one.

Further, African philosophy did not allow for the disposal and forgetting of bodies.

Ex: If the word “community” were to be used, it does not simply include the living beings and their duties, it also included the dead and the operations they took care of within the society.

They did not think of someone as dead. When prayers are said to their ancestors, it has always been an invitation with an expectation of participation. There was no past, present, and future. The dead, the living and the unborn were all one.

Early Egyptian concepts:

Ankh (The most Popularly used Egyptian Glyph)- Life, Living, Presence, and Existence.

Seneb- Wellness/Health

Djeb- Stability

Heheh- Eternity (the everlasting present moment that is happening forever as your cells multiply & decay and the planets rotate around the stars)

Neter- God, The Divine, Diety

Meri- Love

Now, the Origins of Philosophy.

The Ancient Egyptians great minds became the first known philosophers and the stone on which all future recorded philosophical foundation was built,through a search for Harmony/Balance, which could ensure Stability.

This led to the beginning of science. Science is basically the art of experience. Trial and error/Practice makes perfect. So, the Ancient Egyptians drew their knowledge from many cultures in Africa that had come before them, which allowed them to view the world with more wisdom and understanding than their ancestors.

Along the Nile lived some of the first known civilizations to get along while living in the exact same place without killing each other AND without being killed by their environment.

The longest river and the largest desert can both be found in Africa. Think of the impact this had on the human mind. Vast expanses of SHIT, and one giant paradise.

The river was even a deity. Known as “Hapi”.

Egyptian seasons were not based on the sun, moon or outside temperature, but rather the river.

The river gave them what we today would call “Summer, Spring, Winter, Fall”

The Nile overflowed every year starting in June, this was known as “Innudation”.

The waters reached a peak, and would begin to recede, this was known as “Emergence”.

That lasted until about February, which was known as “Drought”.

During Emergence, the Egyptians would trap water in man made lakes to be used later for irrigation (watering their farms), and they would use the soft fertile soil left by the river to plant seeds.

During Innudation, the farmers would become builders and artisans to earn a living.

There were people that would measure the height of the river, and give updates on rising flood waters. They could sit up stream, and signal miles away what was going to happen down stream. Based on volume of water, and size of the river in that area.

Therefor, experts in Aswan could make predictions and tell the people near Abydos how much food they would need to harvest that year.

Everything depended on their predictions, if the Nile was not going to have enough water one year, the farmers would have to walk with buckets to retrieve the water they needed to store.

The Ancient African people affectionately called their land “Kemet” (that is the Ancient Egyptian word or Egypt), which translate into “Land of the Blacks”. The Greeks later gave it the name “Aegyptos”.

To understand philosophers AFTER Imhotep but before Plato, you must understand that Egypt had established how the universe was created, so the questions of life and death no longer included the pondering of creation.

The big bang theory (The Theory of all of the universe bursting forth from “Ra” who is the god that represents solar energy).

Creation of Earth, everything was at one point fluid and the solid land formed out of the waters (Legend of Amen and Ptah) Here is the gist of their myth. The Earth was in the Center of the planet, and was completely covered by water. Mist above the water, and all of it was on fire. The fire heating the water caused it to evaporate, the as it evaporated, dry land came to be seen underneath. So, basically: Magma touches water, land is formed.

So the only real question they had left to answer was human purpose.

In the Ancient African mind, the universe was one. And the ONLY way for it to make sense, was for everything to come together. Meaning, everything needs to co-operate, seeing as it is all part of the same, so conflict does not help anything.

The struggle for this is called “Ma'at” and the goal of Ma'at was to get the universe operating at its original state (one solid unit).

When you say a Christian prayer and end it with “Amen”, you are giving a tip of your hat to the Egyptian creation god “Amen”.

Egyptians understood the idea of actualization (Western culture might call it “Maturing” or “Growing up”, but the idea is not the same). It is represented by the Scarab Beetle, Khepri, who is first an egg, a larva and a nymph before it can ever fly. This was a very important observation to the ancient Egyptians, as they could see the importance of youth and the roles of others in society.

They believed that the scarab beetles representation held the key to the meanings of transformation, evolution and even political radicalization or revolution. Nothing is ever static, and harmony can be found only in movement.

This is going to be impossible for some people to accept, but this is a huge part of understanding the mind of an Ancient Egyptian.

There is no such thing as “magic” in the mystical sense.

Magic is simply the use of words… The creation of language, the exchange of ideas, the movement of culture.

To put it simply, the magic words to make a cold drink appear are “Can you get me a drink from the fridge?”

Now, maybe sometimes the magic works, sometimes it doesn't. But the important part is that you have the ability to take an idea, transport it into the universe via language, then someone else can accept that idea and it can have a reaction in society.

Ta-da. Magic

Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

Imhotep

Now we can finally get to Imhotep, since these past 2 pages of posts pretty well explain the mentality of someone living where and when he lived.

Imhotep is one of the first HUMAN non noble names to appear in human history (the Dead Sea Scrolls aka the Bible, was written at least 2000 years after Imhotep died and was written about, so no one can say “What about Adam and Eve). And he stands near the top of history in terms of genius.

He was the FIRST master builder in history. Most of the things you imagine when you picture Egypt (the pyramids, the columns, etc) were all inventions that were accredited to him.

But sadly Imhotep is like Socrates, in the sense that he was not an author (or his writings were destroyed by invaders), so the only information we have about him is from other people's writings.

But he was a great physician, as well as one of the first people to diagnose, treat, and pass down information about disease.

He was also an amazing mathematician, he invented so many of the early measuring devices that much of Egypt (even stuff that happened after he died) would not have been possible without his contributions. And during his lifetime he was able to properly devise, and explain the plans for building things that had never even been dreamed of by anyone else.

One can not truly understand what it means to appreciate history, without understanding and appreciating Imhotep's work on the Step Pyramid.

This Pyramid was a place where the leaders of the nation could hold conference with the gods, and the body of the Pharaoh could be preserved after death. Which in no little way, is responsible for much of the stability and literacy (mainly philosophical literature) of much of the world after. Because without the step pyramid, there is only the Nile holding Egypt together as a nation. Without the step pyramid, there is not writings of the afterlife for later cultures to come study. There is no ancient knowledge to be passed on to Plato, then to Greece.

Imhotep and his constructive abilities are responsible for the introduction of large scale city planning to human kind, as well as some of the first national monuments.

Imhotep first shows up in history as vizier to the Pharaoh, Djoser, of the 3rd dynasty around 2900-2980 BC.

He was the first person to be raised to the status of demi-god, then god, for his skill with medicine.

One of Imhotep's major advantages was that his father was a well known (and most likely well paid) architect. Which allowed Imhotep to be educated as child in all of the sciences and arts of ancient Egypt.

As an adult, Imhotep's titles included: Grand Vizier, Architect, Physician, Chief Lector Priest or Kheri-heb. No human being before Imhotep had ever been given so many titles of intellect and science. As vizier, Imhotep was basically the “Prime Minister” of Egypt. He ruled directly under Pharaoh deciding how best to carry out his orders for the day, and making sure Egypt as a whole ran smoothly, as well as taking care of any civil disputes (court cases) that needed to be handled.

The legend of the 7 year famine shows us the ability of Imhotep's wisdom, For seven years in a row, the Nile river didn't “flood” to its regular level, which had a devastating effect on livestock, farming and life in general. All over Egypt, the Pharaoh was losing political favor, as the blame was being put on him for not paying proper respects to the gods.

The Pharaoh came to Imhotep, and asked him what he could do. And at this moment, Imhotep became the first person to use a historical record to solve a modern problem (at least modern in terms of Imhotep). Not only did this show his great research ability and wisdom, but showed that even with the titles bestowed him, and the power and responsibility he controlled, he was still humble enough to seek answers from the past.

Though Imhotep was very good at everything he did, he was most revered for his ability with medicine. His skills as a physician are what earned him deification, the way this was achieved was through the Pharaoh's construction of a temple in his name only 50 years after his death.

Many of the “Magical” writings from Egypt are filled with medical prescriptions as well as incantations to be chanted when medicine was administered, and Imhotep was considered a great Magician (aka: The “Kheri-heb” who was believed to mediate discussion between the gods and the pharaoh). Imhotep set the foundation for medicine all over Africa.

The idea behind it is that without the “magic” words being used with the medicine, it does not have its full effect. (which can be seen today in alternative medicines, and cancer treatment. Support and faith makes all the difference)

Imhotep's glory lived so long, that he was worshiped nearly 2000 years after his death as the god of medicine in Greece. But his cults were banned.

The Greek name for “Imhotep” was “Aesclapius”.

Ptahhotep

Now for the next philosopher, Ptahhotep, son of a king (around 2400 BC).

As described before, Ma'at is kinda like the state of the universe, and the goal of Ma'at is to create a balance to bring stability, and get the universe working in harmony. In the mind of an ancient Egyptian, the gods had already decided the paths of good and evil, it was just up to us to find them.

Ptahhotep put a strong focus on Ma'at, and questioned human integrity. He was also the first person on record to address good manners, and style. There are also claims that he was 110 years old, which would have allowed him great wisdom in the ancient world and much of his advice was meant for his own son who would hold an office of great power.

The records we have written by Ptahhotep are in 37 maxims, that were actually copied many years after the original copies were actually written by Ptahhotep himself. And in the Maxims he is concerned with issues of: Moderation, generosity, kindness, respect, integrity, justice, and self-control.

An important thing to notice, is that there is no focus on things like: Valor, Courage, Bravery or even Prowess as you would find in western (war driven) society like Rome, where it is important to “scatter your enemies to the wind”.

Which is something in itself to point out about the Egyptians. There is no war god. There are no great wars. They are for the most part, peaceful with the entire world as they encounter it.

Egyptians respected age, because with age came wisdom. But they understood this in a more complete sense.

They believed that the older a person was, the closer they are to the gods. And that a young man speaking to an old man about his past, is learning about the world of his ancestors. And in turn, this child could become a model for the children after him. This gave Ptahhotep great authority (as a man claiming to be 110 years old ).

Ptahhotep put much emphasis on the words of the dead (and he shared many things he himself had heard throughout his life), as they were the ones closest to the gods.

Ptahhotep's Seboyet

In the early 1800's, on the west bank of the Nile river, in a tomb located at the Valley of Kings, a papyrus was found. 18 pages of near perfect text, closest to the Mdw Ntr (Heiroglyphics) dialect. The papyrus contained 2 separate works, one was incomplete and written to someone named “Kagame”. Most of that section has been lost, or destroyed, the other section contained the complete works of Ptahhotep (14 pages). 2 other works of Ptahhotep have been found, as well as a tomb for him near the step pyramid at Sakkara. We are not certain that this is him, but it has been suggested that both Ptahhoteps are the same (tomb and writer).

The writing says that the author (Ptahhotep) lived during the reign of Menkauhor (2396 BC-2388 BC) and Assa Djed-Ka-Ra (2388 BC-2356 BC) and also said that Ptahhotep was the “favored one” of Assa. He was Assa's grand uncle, and tutor. Ptahhotep was also said to be the eldest legitimate son of an unnamed Pharaoh, and claimed to be 110 years old at the time his book was written. Ptahhotep was supposed to be Pharaoh, but gave up the chance in order to live a less secular, more divine life as more of a priest/philosopher.

By 3100 BC Kmt (Called Aegyptos or “Egypt” by the Greeks) had become a nation state, and remnants of their older societies lay to the south. Mdw Ntr, translates into “The Nectar of God”, and were thousands of years later called by the Greeks “Heiroglyphics”. The strange thing about Heiroglyphics is that there is no developmental period. They simply appear, fully developed around the Nile, which suggests that it existed elsewhere previously.

The writings we have from Ptahhotep were not the actual copy written by him, it is a copy from the Middle Kingdom, but there is ample evidence pointing to the existence of the exact person that exists in the writing.

  • Here are his writings (remember, he did this in Hieroglyphics):

God upon two Crocodiles, My God, the process of aging brings senility. My mind decays and forgetfulness of the things of yesterday has already begun. Feebleness has come, and weakness grows. Child like, one sleeps all day, the eyes are dim and the ears are becoming deaf. The strength is being sapped. The mouth has grown silent, and does not speak. The bones ache through and through. Good things now seem evil. The taste has gone. What old age does to people in evil is everything. The nose is clogged and does not breathe. It is painful even to stand or sit. May your servant be authorized to use the status that old age affords, to teach the hearers, so as to tell them the word of those who have listened to the ways of our ancestors, and those who have listened to the gods. May I do this for you, so that strife may be banned from among our people, and so that two shores may serve you?

1. Do not be proud and arrogant with your knowledge. Consult and converse with the ignorant and the wise, for the limits are not reached. No artist ever possesses that perfection to which he should aspire. Good speech is more hidden than Emeralds, yet it may be found among the maids at the grindstones.

2. If you meet a disputant in the heat of action, one who is more powerful than you, simply fold your arms and bend your back (bow?). To confront him will not make him agree with you. Pay no attention to his evil speech. If you do not confront him while he is raging, people will call him ignorant. Your self control will be the match for his evil utterances.

3. If you meet a disputant in the heat of action, one who is your equal, one who is on your level, you will overcome him by being silent when he is speaking evilly. There will be much talk among those who hear and your name will be held in high regard among the great.

4. If you meet a disputant in the heat of action who is a poor man, and who is not your equal, do not attack him because he is weak. Leave him alone, he will confound himself. Do not answer him just so that you can relieve your own heart. Do not vent yourself against your opponent. Wretched is he who injures a poor man.

5. If you are a man who leads, a man who controls the affairs of many, then seek the most perfect way of preforming responsibilities, so that no blame falls on you. Great is Ma'at. It is everlasting. Ma'at has been unchanged since the time of Assar. To create obstacles to the following of Ma'at, is to open a way to a condition of violence. Baseness may obtain riches, yet crime never lands its wares on the shore. In the end, only Ma'at lasts.

6. Do not scheme against people. Ma'at will punish accordingly; If a man says, “I shall live by scheming” he will lack bread for his mouth. If a man says, “I will be rich” he will have to say “My cleverness has trapped me”. I he says, “I will trap for myself” he will not be able to say, “I trapped for my profit”. If a man says “I will rob someone”, he will end by being given to a stranger. People's schemes do not prevail. Ma'at is what prevails. Therefor, live in the midst of peace. What god gives comes by itself.

7. If you are one among guests at the table of a person who is more powerful than you, take what that person gives, just as it is set before you. Look at what is set before you. Don't stare at your host. Don't speak to him until he asks. One does not know what may displease him. Speak when he has spoken to you. Then your words will please the heart. The man who has plenty of the means of existence acts as his Ka commands. He will give food to those who he favors. It is the Ka that makes his hand stretch out. The great man gives to the chosen man, thus eating is under the direction of Ma'at. It is a fool who complains about it.

8. If you are a person of trust, sent from one great person to another great person, be careful to stick to the essence of the message that you were asked to transmit. Give the message exactly as he gave it to you. Guard against provocative speech which makes one great person angry with another. Just keep to the truth. Do not exceed it. However, even though there may have been an out-burst in the message, you should not repeat it. Do not malign anyone, big or small, the Ka abhors it.

9. If you plow and if there is growth in your field and Ma'at lets it prosper in your hands, don't boast to your neighbor. One has great respect for the silent person. A person of character is a person of wealth. If that person robs, he or she is like a crocodile in the middle of the waters. If Ma'at gives you children, do not impose on one who has no children. Neither should you brag or decry about having your own children, for there is many a father who has grief for a mother with children that is less content than another. It is the lonely who Ma'at nurtures, while the family man prays for a follower.

10. If you are poor, then serve a person of worth so that your conduct will be in line with Ma'at. Do not bring up the fact that he once was poor. Do not be arrogant towards him just because you know about his former state. Respect him now for his position of authority. As for fortune, it obeys its own law and that is her will. It is Ma'at that makes him worthy, and keeps him safe while he sleeps, or who can turn away from him.

11. Follow your heart (Ma'at) as long as you live. Do no more than is required of you. Do not shorten the time of 'follow the heart' for that offends the Ka. Don't waste time on daily cares over and beyond providing for your household. When wealth finally comes, then follow your heart. Wealth does no good if you are glum.

12. If you are a wise man, train up a son that will follow the Ma'at. If he is good and takes up after you, take good care of him. Do everything that is good for him. But an offspring can make trouble. If your son strays and neglects good council, and disobeys all that is said, with his mouth or spouting evil speech, then punish him.

13. If you are a guard in the store house, stand or sit rather than leave your post and trespass into someone else's place. Follow this rule from the start. Never leave your post, even when tired. Only Ma'at can penetrate the secure storehouse where the rules are followed, even by those of privilege.

14. If you are among the people, then gain your supporters by building trust. A trusted man is the one who does not speak the first thing that comes to mind; and he will become a leader. A man of means has a good name, and his face is benign. People will praise him, even without his knowledge. On the other hand, he whose heart obeys his belly, asks for contempt of himself in the place of love. His heart is naked. His body unannointed. The great hearted are Ma'at. He who is ruled by his appetite, is fed by his enemy.

15. Report the thing that you were commissioned to report without error. Give your advice in the high council. If you are fluent in your speech, it will not be hard for you to report. Nor will anyone say of you “who is he to know this?”. As to the authorities, their affairs will fail if they punish you for speaking truth. They should be silent upon hearing the report that you have rendered as you have been told. If you are a man who leads, a man whose authority reaches widely, then you should do perfect things (follow Ma'at), those which posterity will remember. Don't listen to the words of flatterers or to words that puff you up with pride and vanity.

(I need to get another book that has 16)

17. If you are a person who judges, listen carefully to the speech of one who pleads. Don't stop the person from telling you everything that they had planned to tell you. A person in distress wants to pour out his heart, even more than they want their case to be won. If you are one who stops a person who is pleading, that person will say “Why does he reject my plea?”. Of course not all that one pleads for can be granted, but a good hearing soothes the heart. The means for getting a true and clear explanation is to listen with kindness.

18. If you want friendship to endure in the house that you enter, the house of a master, of a brother or of a friend, then in whatever place you enter beware of approaching the women there. Unhappy is the place where this is done. unwelcome is he who intrudes on them. A thousand men are turned away from their good because of a short moment that is like a dream, and then that moment is followed by death that comes from having known that dream. Anyone who encourages you to take advantage of the situation gives you poor advice. When you go to do it, your heart says no. If you are one who fails through the lust of women, then no affair of yours can prosper.

19. If you want to have follow Ma'at, to be free from every evil, then above all guard against the vice of greed. Greed is a grievous sickness that has no cure. There is no treatment for it. It embroils fathers, mothers and the brothers of the mother. It parts the wife from the husband. Greed is a compound of all the evils. It is a bundle of all hateful things. That person endures whose rule is righteous, who walks a straight line, for that person will leave a legacy by such behavior. On the other hand, the greedy has no tomb.

20. Do not be greedy in the division of things. Do not covet more than your share. Don't be greedy towards your relatives. A mild person has greater claim than the harsh one. Poor is the person who forgets his relatives. He is deprived of their company. Even a little bit of what is wanted will turn a quarreler into a friendly person.

21. When you prosper and establish your home, love your wife passionately. Then fill her belly and clothe her back. Caress her. Give her ointments to soothe her body. Fulfill her wishes as long as you live. She is a fertile field for her husband. Do not be brutal. Ma'at will influence her better than force. Do not contend with her in the courts. Keep her from the need to resort to outside powers. Her eye is her storm when she gazes. It is by such treatment that she will be compelled to stay in your house.

22. Help your friends with things that you have, for you have these things by the grace of Ma'at. If you fail to help your friends, one will say you have a selfish Ka. One plans for tomorrow, but you do not know what tomorrow will bring. The right soul is the soul by which one is sustained. If you do praiseworthy things, your friends will say “Welcome” in your time of need. Do not repeat slander, nor should you even listen to it. It is the spouting of the hot bellied. Just report a thing that has been observed, not something that has been heard second hand. If it is negligible, don't even say anything. He who is standing before you will recognize your worth. Slander is like a terrible dream against one covers the face.

(I need to get a book that has 23)

24. If you are a man of worth who sits at the council of a leader, concentrate on following ma'at. Your silence is much better than boasting. Speak when you know that you have a solution. It is the skilled person who should speak when in council. Speaking is harder than all other work. The one who understands this, makes speech a servant.

25. If you are mighty and powerful, then gain respect through knowledge and through your gentleness of speech. Don't order things except as it is fitting. The one who provokes others to get into trouble. Don't be haughty, lest you be humbled. But also don't be mute lest you be chided. When you answer one who is fuming, turn your face and control yourself. The flame of the hot hearted sweeps across everything. But he who steps gently, his path is a paved road. He who is agitated all day has no happy moments, but he who amuses himself all day can't keep his fortune.

26. Do not disturb a great man or distract his attention when he is occupied, trying to understand his task. When he is thus occupied, he strips his body through the love of what he does. Love for the work which they do bring men closer to Ma'at. These are the people who succeed in what they do.

27. Teach the great what is useful to them. Be an aide to the great before the people. If you let your knowledge impress your leader, your sustenance from him will then come from his soul. As his favorite's belly is filled, so will your back be clothed and his help will be there to sustain you. For your leader whom you love and who lives by useful knowledge, he in turn will give you good support. Thus will the love of you endure in his belly. He is a soul who loves to listen.

28. If you are an official of high standing, and you are commissioned to satisfy the many, then to hold in line with Ma'at, when you speak do not lean to one side or the other. Beware, lest someone complain, saying to the judges, “he has distorted things”, and then your very deeds will turn into judgement of you.

29. If you are angered by a misdeed, then lean toward a man on account of his rightness. Pass over the misdeed and don't remember it, since Ma'at was silent to you on the first day of your misdeed.

30. If you are great after having been humble, if you have gained you wealth after having been poor, and then you go to a town that you know and that knows your former condition, don't put your trust in your newly acquired wealth which has come to you through Ma'at. If you do, one day someone who is poor may very well overtake you.

31. Accept the authority of your leaders, then your house will endure in its wealth. Your rewards will come from the right place. Wretched is he who opposes his leader. One lives as long as he is mild. Baring your arm does not hurt it. Do not plunder your neighbor's house or steal the goods of one that is near you, least he denounce you before you are even heard. One who is argumentative is a mildless person. If he is also known as an aggressor, then that hostile man will have trouble in the neighborhood.

32. Be circumspect in matters of sexual relation.

33. If you examine the character of a friend, don't ask other people, approach your friend. Deal with him alone, so as not to suffer from his anger. You may argue with him after a little while. You may test his heart in conversation. If what he has seen escapes him, if he does something that annoys you, stay friendly with him and do not attack. Be restrained and don't answer him with hostility. Do not leave him and do not attack him. His time will not fail to come. He cannot escape his fate.

34. Be generous as long as you live. What leaves the storehouse does not return. It is the food in the storehouse that one must share that is coveted. One whose belly is empty becomes an accuser. One who is deprived becomes an opponent. Therefore, do not have an accuser or an opponent as a neighbor. Your kindness to your neighbors will be a memorial to you for years after you satisfy their needs.

35. Know your friends and then you prosper. Don't be mean towards your friends. They are like a watered field and greater than any material riches that you may have, for what belongs to one belongs to another. The character of one who is well born should be a profit to him. Good nature is a memorial.

36. Punish firmly and chastise soundly, then repression of crime becomes an example. But punishment except for crime will turn the complainer into an enemy.

37. If you take for a wife a good time woman who is joyful and who is well known in the town, if she is fickle and seems to live for the moment, do not reject her. Let her ear. The joyful person brings happiness.

Merikare

Merikare, the Common Sense Philosopher.

Skilled Speech is more valuable than skill with weapons. He called the skilled public speaker an artist, because metaphors and sincerity are important things that must be displayed.

He put great emphasis on being good and being kind. So kind that men pray to god in your name and for your good health. In the end their is only Ma'at (the operations of the universe), so there is no reason to be “sinful” towards other people during your life.

He spoke about the role of leaders to enforce Ma'at on earth, and about how a leader should behave in order to best achieve that. If justice, righteousness, order, harmony, truth, balance and reciprocity do not exist in a nation, the leader should be held responsible.

He suggested that in raising youth, it was important to appeal to them in order to gain their respect. And that if you could gain the favor of the youth, you have done something towards the path of good. As children will happily follow a good thing.

Amenemhat

Amenemhat, the Original Cynic.

Amenemhat was a king that had done everything for his people, and had been generous to everyone around him. Yet, he received very little in return. He gave men power, only to have them turn their back on him.

He wrote about many things he had experienced in his lifetime: death of loved ones, poverty, betrayal and ingratitude.

He was the first philosopher to share ideas like “trust no one” and “a friend is just an enemy who is afraid to kill you”.

Amanemhat was the first man to speak about securing yourself from other people while you sleep (as we do today with locks, guns, cameras and doors). He knew that when you are in hardship, no one is your friend. In his words: “In the day of adversity, a man has no adherents.”

To him this was a message of success to the future. He suggested that a person not trust a sibling, avoid making real friends (because there are no real friends), and avoid being too intimate with anyone during times of success.

Those who kept your secrets will become your accusers, those who praised your name will condemn you. They are the vultures that surround you and attack your corpse.

It does not matter what you sacrifice for another, he gave to the poor, nourished the orphan, and caused men who had nothing to reach great goals, yet he was abandoned.

He wanted to answer the question “Why does someone turn on he who advances him most?”

Ancient Egyptian Literature

Inscriptions of Princess Ni-Sedjer-Kai

  • Over the Entrance to the Pillard Hall

May she be buried in the Western Necropolis in great old age (an offering to Anubis). May she travel on the good ways, on which a revered one travels well. May offerings be given to her on the New Year's feast, the Thoth feast, the First-of-the-Year feast, the wag-feast, the Sokar fest, the Great Flame feast, the Brazier feast, the Procession-of-min feast, the monthly Sadj-feast, the beginning-of-the-month feast, the beginning-of-the-half-month feast, every feast, every day, to the Royal daughter, the Royal ornament, Ni-Sedjer-Kai.

  • On the Entrance to the inner Chamber

The Eloquent Peasant

The Book of the Dead or "The Book of Coming forth into the Light from the Darkness"

Defintions

Amen- The Hidden One

Akh- Like Ba and Ka, Akh is one of the 3 constituents of human identity. Akh is what leaves your body upon death (like a soul) and was represented by the crested Ibis (a bird).

Ba- Ba is present at the ceremonial heart weighing. When it was decided if a person was “good enough” (bad translation) during life. It was represented by a human head with wings.

Coffin Texts- Inscribed on coffins and sarcophagi, these were spiritual sayings that were meant to guide one through the afterlife.

Dromos- Path between temples

Heiroglyphs- Greek for: Sacred Carved Letters

Hyksos (Hekaw Khasut)- Asians who became rulers of lower Egypt 1750-1550 BC

Ka- Life Force/Personality/Self This is what would receive any offering given to you after death.

Ma'at- The goal of the Kemetic world, represented as a goddess. She symbolized: Order, Balance, Harmony, Justice, Righteousness, and Reciprocity. Ma'at was a balance to be achieved in the universe.

A Deeper Look At Hieroglyphics

Ancient Carthage

The Punic Wars

Hannibal's Perspective

“Of all that befell the Romans… the cause was one man and one mind. Hannibal” -Polybius

Hannibal grew up within sight of the sea on mount Eryx. He did not leave the mountain until he was 5 years old, and would not have been allowed to visit the city below the mountain due to war between the two peoples. So Hannibal's first memories as a child were most likely of life in an armed camp. This community was lead by his father, Hamiclar Barca, and when food was short Hannibal would have seen his people go out in arms, and come back with donkeys loaded full of wine and grains. Many of the people in the camp would have been mercenaries, so Hannibal would have been accustomed to hearing many different languages, as well as African and Greek (trade) dialects. Hamiclar was adept at winning over even Roman deserters, he even offered slaves the right of marriage as well as pay for their work. And because he was the first born son of lord Hamiclar the men in the camp would happily sit and educate Hannibal when he asked questions.

The people of Carthage were descendants of the Phoenician Semites, and were devout worshipers of the gods of Canaan (which would make them somewhat the “Christian”/“Jewish” forces of the time, but Jesus wasn't even born for another 200ish years).

Hamiclar had proven that he had the courage of a lion, and his surname “Barca” was something that wasn't necessarily passed on to all of his children, and translates to mean “Lightning”. Because of this mercenaries came from afar to serve him, and he always gave fair reward to his men in comparison to himself, which earned him even more respect.

Because of their devotion to the gods of Canaan they would offer sacrifice, were always conscious of impending doom as a culture (as we are today) and knew they may even have to sacrifice themselves one day.

The Carthaginian mind was very innovative, they even created their own dialects of speech (which included multiple languages), as did the Syrians and certain Greeks. They were very inventive in methods of farming, labor, metal work and exploring the west with its “Barbaric” inhabitants. And can be credited for the invention of clear glass.

On top of all of this, Hamiclar was a glorious leader, and his mountain encampment would not be lost. Even with failing food supplies. And in this he was securing a vantage point for a campaign against Rome, without exhausting the Carthage treasury because he paid the mercenaries himself. In this Hamiclar was working AGAINST the “traditionalists” of his country, losing him political/relgious favor. But he was defiant, even against fate (as the council of his nation saw it).

The council of Carthage was exhausted, as was the Roman force. But Hamiclar was sent to settle the dispute of peace, which was a good move as he was not willing to surrender.

The council was made up of the elders of the most wealthy families of Carthage, and there were many men amongst them that disliked the Barca family, and were happy at a chance to see them fail, and if they settled peace it would be a pleasant surprise.

The elders distrusted Hamiclar.

Peace was achieved, and Hamiclar returned to camp.

As a term of peace, any Roman deserters were to be given up to Rome.

A Roman that had served for Hamiclar for a long time came to him and explained that if them and the Roman slaves were given up to Rome, they would most likely be crucified.

Hamiclar promised the Romans that they would return to Carthage, though peace would remain. But as they returned home they calculated how much they were owed by the nation of Carthage, and what started as a small riot grew into a civil war, which changed the plans of Hamiclar.

At this time Hannibal was living within the great city of Carthage, where tutors would have been available and his siblings would be around. But he would probably always have at least a faint memory of life in the camp.

A Citadel stood in the city of Carthage, which was to give tribute to the Earth Mother Tanit, and a god they called Eshmoun ( in Greek: Aesclapius, aka Egyptian Imhotep).

The city had buildings 7 stories tall (due to restricted space) and were fitted with rain water collectors.

They had many artisans, as well as “unions”.

Carthage had been the supremacy at sea for years (which was lost) gaining them a very secure trade and treasury. The Hanno clan were very successful aristocrats and were openly antagonists of the upstart Hamiclar.

Many people passed through the city of Carthage who were not residents. Numidians, Soudanese, Massylians, Libyans, Greeks and even caravans from deep Africa.

In fact, the highways of the Carthiginians had become arteries for the continent of Africa.

Carthage had no defensive wall and had never needed one previously, as the sea had created a perfect deterrent.

A civil war erupted, and as a child of noble decent it is not certain if Hannibal would have any experience of it. But at this time, tribes within Carthage were defecting, while some remained loyal.

The rebels (headed by the veterans of Hamiclars army who had not been paid by Carthage) attacked the city which had no trained army to defend itself, and as a last resort the council gave power to Hamiclar.

He rose an army of horse and elephant riders to dismiss the rebels.

At this time Hannibal may have seen members of his fathers army who he had lived along side, crucified.

At 9 years old Hannibal would have begun to see the fortification of his home town, walls were erected 20 paces wide and the height of 7 men. As well as plenty of stable room for elephants and horses.

Hannibal's father and Brother in law left for battle, and Hannibal would have seen that they did not have the mercenaries they had before (many of them had been crucified), as people from his home left.

His father made a sacrifice to god. Most likely of lamb and wine. Hannibal went to his father and begged to be allowed on an overseas campaign. He led Hannibal to the alter, held Hannibal over the flames and made him swear he would never be a friend to the “evil” Roman empire. Hannibal promised and was allowed to live.

This is an oath that all of Hamiclar's sons took, and that many (if not all) of the Carthaginian officers would have been made to take as well.

Hannibal left Carthage, and was put onto a ship with his father headed to Gadir, Spain.

Hamiclar came here to transform Spain into a center of trade for Carthage, as well as a recruitment base and vantage point. But he had very little time to get this done.

The Atlantic ocean was no mystery to the Phoenicians, and they had been sailing the ocean since times that were even ancient in relation to Hannibal.

Carthage would be the force to keep these secrets, until their fall just after the time of Hannibal.

Hispania became known as such (Hispania= The Hidden Country) because when Greek scouts were sent out, and returned with stories of it, it had been so well guarded before that, they did not believe the stories and called the place a “fable”.

For 9 years Hamiclar tamed 1/3 of the barbaric Spain.

Hamiclar and Hannibal were ambushed by a Spainish tribe, They got away, but Hamiclar was followed to a river. Hannibal was safe as his dad had told him to go a different direction with his younger brother, and in the end Hamiclar was killed at the river.

The forces of Carthage would then go out and lay terror to the country side before enslaving the entire tribe. And Hasdrubal (Hannibal's brother in law) was put in charge.

8 years passed and Hasdrubal “sold out” to the nearby tribes, accepting bribes and seeking friendship with the Spanish, Iberian and Celtic chieftains. But he did this in seek of peace, so as not to follow in Hamiclar's footsteps.

The new city began to thrive and they built shipyards and a new temple to Eshmoun (Imhotep). As well as a small palace near the harbor for Hasdrubal, and a coinage for the people.

But such a thriving port did not go unnoticed, and because of how it looked in resemblance to the port in Africa, the reports came to Rome of a “New Carthage”. So the Roman senate asked Hasdrubal to make a pledge not to cross the Ebro river with arms.

Hasdrubal agreed to the treaty and in doing so he basically acknowledged the authority of Rome to exist to the point of the Ebro river. But in doing so bought himself time to win the favor of more of the local tribes.

Five years later, Hasdrubal is assassinated. Legend says that it was angry Celts who carried out the task.

The officers of the Army of Spain met in Carthage, and appointed Hannibal the new leader. They saw his father in him.

The council of Carthage was in debate over this, mainly the Hanno clan, who claimed that Hasdrubal had made himself king across the sea in all but name (meaning he had taken authority from the council and given it to himself), as if the new city were not meant to be a part of the nation of Carthage.

But none of the elders particularly knew much about Hannibal, and they could not make a fair decision. So they left the choice to the popular assembly of citizens, who had always favored the Barca family.

The people named Hannibal leader of the new city, and boats fill with gifts came from New Carthage to the old city (a gift from Hannibal's town).

But no one could say what was really going on in Hannibal's mind.

In the year 221 BC Hannibal was 26 years old, and he would rather sleep in a lion skin outdoors than in a pavilion, he acted quickly in intense situations, he kept a level head in those situations, and he showed no fatigue in heat or hardship. He ate sparingly, and consumed little wine. He did not dress with the tools of his people, but those more similar to that of an Iberian. Hannibal had a sense of humor, as well as a sense of irony (obvious in his suicide note later).

Much of his personality had come from the inhabitants of southern Spain, who would ride far to a festival, but were unawed by ancient gods.

During this time it is said that Hannibal ruled ruthlessly, but living along side Celtic tribes and under a council that was not sure he deserved respect, he had to prove and assert himself within the Spanish community.

The people of Spain had zero want or respect for central government, and Hannibal wanted to shove it down their throats, then explain it later.

And he did EVERYTHING in person (much unlike modern leaders, who send the lower class to do their biding).

Hannibal's men never expected to be ordered to go somewhere preceding him, they knew they could follow him and that he would always be the first one to throw himself into battle.

“By his cunning he won the friendship of chieftains, with force and bribes he won their will.” And in Spain it became well known that Hannibal would bribe, or punish if you didn't fall in line.

He recruited as he crossed Spain untill he ran into the Vaccaens, he asked that they allow their youth to join his ranks (and they would be provided with food, money, etc), as well as a small payment of tribute to acknowledge his authority. But the tribes were slow to make decisions, and needed time to meditate on such a change.

The tribes raised their horsemen to do battle, and Hannibal was advised by his peers to attack. But he retreated and was chased by the horsemen, who floundered when they hit the river, where spear-men could force them back. The Cathiganians chased to ensure no more attacks would come from the tribes, then continued without resistance to the Ebro river (as far as they were allowed to go, according to the treaty between Rome and the deceased Hasdrubal)

These tribal horsemen would become the backbone of Hannibal's army, if he could tame them. The Celtiberians were volatile and panther like. And further north lived the Uxama tribe, who worshiped the horse-breeding goddess, Epona.

The Celtiberians carried a 2 foot sword, with a slight curve and 2 edges. With the force of a strike added to the speed of a horse, these weapons were extremely deadly. They had also invented a 5 foot lance tipped in iron, which could be thrown from horseback to penetrate shields and some armor.

Hannibal knew that money would not subdue the Spaniards, due to what is known as “Altivez”. It is kind of like arrogance, but different. If they took an oath, they kept the oath. Somehow Hannibal got this oath from the horsemen.

In 219 Romans came to New Carthage to speak with Hannibal, they asked that he not cross the Ebros River (as agreed by his deceased brother in law), and not to intrude on the city of Saguntum (a city who had heard of Hannibal's Spanish conquests and did not want to be conquered, but lived well within Hannibal's borders according to the treaty with Rome).

Hannibal replied saying that the city was under his authority according to the treaty, and that the inhabitants would have to pay for their crimes against the Tartessians “For it is the hereditary custom of Carthage to aid an oppressed people”. The council does not oppose Hannibal, even at the plea of Hanno.

The following year he laid siege on the city.

One thing must have been forefront in Hannibal's mind, his people had been the supremacy at sea since before he was born, since before his father was born, and even since before HIS father was born (and on and on), until recently. So, any Carthage national would have felt at least a small amount of resentment towards Rome, as well as a sense of fear at what the future might hold. Since with the loss at sea, they would lose any islands and any sea bordering land may be contested.

According to legend a Carthiganian ship washed up on a Roman shore. The copy was made, and “machines” were created for people to practice rowing on land. Thus ended the Carthage reign of the sea.

Hannibal always had a map in his possession, which would have had measurements of distance and descriptions of the people in the area. As well as ever changing (as word came) Roman borders at land and sea.

During the siege, Hannibal's wife (who is rarely mentioned, and never described) Imilce gave birth to a child.

The siege took 8 months, and finally Hannibal's forced broke the walls of the city and took everything inside for his men, and sent many gifts back to Carthage. Rome never sent reinforcements to the city they had promised to protect.

The Romans sent a diplomat (a member of the Fabius family) to Carthage and asked that they give Hannibal and his men to the Roman Republic, and the council said “no”.

The diplomat asked if Carthage had ordered Hannibal to lay siege on Saguntum, in return the council asked the diplomat if the senate had offered the city protection rather than hold to its treaty with Carthage (to not cross the Ebros with intent of war).

The diplomat said that the questions wearied him, then he said “I hold within this fold of my toga war or peace, Carthiganians, choose which you will have.”

The Carthiganians left for a moment to hold a private discussion and when they returned, their reply was “Choose yourself”.

The Diplomat said “Then war it will be” and returned to Rome to tell the senate the news.

Rome began making battle plans and dispatched an army to Spain to meet with Hannibal, as well as an army to Carthage to draw him home. But the Romans who left by sea fell ill.

The Romans had thought Hannibal's advance would be slow, and when they expected him to still be respecting the treaty they had broken, he was no where near the Ebros and had already gotten as far as the Rhone.

By the time the Romans got to the camp near the Rhone Hannibal's army was gone, headed towards the alps and Italy. The army decided to continue forward instead of following Hannibal, and they couldn't have made a worse decision.

In 218 Rome's actions were clear, but with Hannibal we get only hints at his plans, as he took much precaution to make sure Rome did not hear of them.

He knew war would be declared for a year, ever since the Romans had come to ask for peace a Saguntum. So he let his Spaniard soldiers spend the winter in their homes, and sent gifts to the Celtic chieftains of northern Italy, asking the messengers to bring back reports of allegiances (Roman or otherwise), farmland, and an idea of what resistance will be like.

Hannibal went through the Andalusion valley in the spring, and their is still evidence of watchtowers built by his men there. At this time there is no evidence (except for Roman writings) that proves Hannibal had any intention of leaving Spain at this time. And he would have known that to leave Spain, would have demoralized his army (who was mostly Spanish and would fight harder to defend their homes). Archaeology suggests that at this point he was merely preparing to defend Spain in case of attack, then when word came of the diplomat who had visited Carthage and declared war, he began to mobilize.

Hannibal's army was now made of many different types of people. Numidian and Moorish cavalry, Libyan and Berber infantry, Balerian slingers, Massyilians and Celtiberians.

Though the Africans were instrumental in Hanniabl's army, the heart lay in the Vaccaea and Uxama horsemen, who wore lion and wolf heads as helmets. The army totaled about 50,000 men and 37 elephants, no discipline, but they crossed Europe (and soon the alps, and into Italy).

If you are one to believe Hannibal was headed for Rome when he crossed the Ebro, then you would find this next part strange. After crossing the Ebro, Hannibal and his men spend three and a half months they basically just hung out between the Ebro and the Pyrenees, a distance they could have covered in 6 days.

Hannibal's youngest brother (though all of them were young compared to their Roman counterparts), Mago, was a fire eater and a commander in Hannibal's forces.

Hannibal's staff was made up of many people from his home land. Maharbal (a man who had served with his father) was present, as well as Hanno (a member of the family of Barca antagonists) and Hert.

Other officers were Spaniard, or Libyan. And he had specialists from all over the known world. A doctor from Egypt, two Greek secretaries, a Spartan who taught Hannibal Greek and an Asian astrologer. As well as one undercover “agent” that would spy on enemy ports and cities, named Carthalo (and many other unnamed agents). This gossip gathering gave Hannibal a huge advantage.

At this point you finally see Hannibal take action against Rome, once he gets word that a fleet is swelling for an attack of the African coast.

Something we know that happened during this time is a visit from two Gaulish (Celtic) tribal leaders from Northern Italy, who told stories of the Romans and said they (the Gaulish forces) would never stop until they had gotten every last field back from them (the Roman forces).

Hannibal pledged that Carthage would help these people, and Hannibal knew he needed to get to the land of these tribes (The River Po) in time to get new supplies, before the Romans got too many people in the area.

Hannibal dispatched Hanno with a group of Cavalry to hold an island up the Rhone,

Hannibal began to cross the river and face a Gaulish force that stood in his way. The two armies came at each other, but as Hanno's force came from their camp at the island, the Gauls retreated.

When his men saw the mountains they became intimidated. Some of the Celts had seen mountains before, but the men from Africa weren't used to a cloudy sky, let alone mountains.

Hannibal spoke to his men “These mountains do not touch the sky.” and he explained to them that families lived on and farmed the mountains. Then he reminded them of the journey they had already accomplished from Carthage to this point, then explained that less than half of that would bring them to their first Italian river.

He told them that no matter where they went, Rome would be there. Carthage would soon be under siege, and the Spanish country side would come next.

They prepared to cross the mountains, and this is where Plubius Scipio found the camp near the Rhone abandoned.

The army that Rome had sent to Carthage to draw Hannibal home, was itself drawn home. Then they were re-dispatched towards the river Po (led by Tiberius Simpronius Longus), where Hannibal was expected to pass.

At the time it is probable that small tribes had made this trip before, but before this there had never been a record of an army made up of so many nations, and of such size to cross the alps. 30,000 on foot 8,000 on horseback, as well as 37 elephants. They would have followed rivers (which mark the quickest paths up and down a mountain), but at higher altitudes they would need guides (most likely the Celts) so as not to run into dead ends and cliffs. Hannibal's army stuck with him, because no man suffered more than Hannibal. If you were cold, so was Hannibal. If you were hungry, so was Hannibal. If you were about to die, so was Hannibal.

But no one is quite sure how he made the trip with such a large army (imagine a group of rock climbers having to accommodate 30,000 extra men. Plus horses and elephants), and so quickly.

Sometimes they even had to travel at night, in order to keep peace with the mountain tribes who were usually raiders by day. They were attacked, but would have been able to gather supplies in any victory.

Another huge problem was rock slides, but one story tells of Hannibal using vinegar and fire to dissolve the rocks and carry on with their journey.

In 15 days they crossed the alps with a large portion of the army still alive (20,000 Infantry, 6,000 Cavalry. Mixed Spanish and African).

In 218 when Hannibal arrived in Gaulish Italy, he would have been disappointed. Having been told that the Gauls were “not willing to give up” their fight with the Romans, he was surprised to see when he arrived on the other side of the alps the Celts were preparing for winter, and no two tribes seemed to be working together for much of anything, let alone an all out war against the Romans. Who seemed, on the other hand, very active and strengthening their camps with fortifications.

Hannibal's men drove out an enemy of their supposed Celt allies (without the help of their allies) and took their shelter and supplies, before heading off to the Tucino River.

But even with the Romans preparing for winter and war, Hannibal still had the advantage, as the Romans probably did not expect him to cross the alps that season, and definitely not that fast and with such a horde.

Publius came up the Po to find that Hannibal had already crossed the mountains (Italy's main defense against attack in that time apart from rivers and city defenses). The Roman army stopped and rested for battle, and openly underestimated Hannibal's ability as a commander, and his armies ability as a whole. But the only disadvantage the Cathiganians truly had was that they were not fighting in their own back yard.

That night Hannibal leveled his army by offering any slave their freedom and any man the ability to go home after battle, and with those promises more and more people came to Hannibal's army, and they fought with more pride.

In the mornoing, mist hung over the river, and the two armies (Rome's Plubius and Hannibal from Carthage) saw each other, and the Roman forces (called legions) moved forward, in a very organized, planned, unpenetrable manner. Like a giant square mob, similar in organization to the Chinese display at the Olympics a few years back.

But Hannibal was an amazing ambuscade strategist (in my own opinion, this comes from hunting, as it is easier to chase your prey somewhere, then have someone else capture it using the element of surprise), and already had a group of Iberian and Berber horsemen waiting, unseen by the Romans.

The two armies clashed (removing the unpenetrable element from the Roman legions, as they lowered their shields and engaged in battle), then out of nowhere (we literally have no idea where Hannibal kept these troops, even today) the Cavalry came and tore into the unsuspecting Romans.

The Roman Cavalry were highly trained soldiers, who had been given horses. But the Spanish horsemen bred horses to live, and rode horses to eat and survive. So outmatched, the Roman horsemen retreated, and the rest of the army followed suit. The battle was so bad, that the Roman consul (commander of that army) Plubius Scipio was wounded, and it is said that his son and a young slave saved his life.

Hannibal's men did follow the Romans, but not in deadly pursuit, it was almost as if they were just getting a good view of the mighty Roman army running from them, or maybe expecting them to regroup and turn around. But most likely Hannibal had told them to hold back, and he was studying the Romans. And he probably had some of his spies (who would be better at interpreting the movements of a people they had encountered themselves) explain to him exactly what the Romans were doing, what they were yelling, and what the sound trumpets was signaling etc.

Hannibal knew that the secret to Roman success was the discipline of its men, and he watched the men, thinking something along the lines of: “I just called every shot in that battle, I can control these people from the outside” (we don't know what he was thinking for sure, but we can guess it was something like that based on future battles).

In this battle Hannibal accomplished many things. He restored morale in his army (after crossing the alps, they must have felt weak), as well as peaking the interest of the Celtic (The Romans called them Gauls) tribes in the region, and in a good way. They had always been interested in anyone who could make a roman army retreat.

That night 2,000 Gauls serving the Romans as soldiers, broke rank, killed their officers, stole some horses and joined Hannibal. He gave them wine and fed them, as well as offering gifts of silver. Then he told them to go back to their tribes and spread word, and to tell them that they could win honor in Hannibal's army. And he created a nucleus of spies from the smarter men.

At this time, one of the tribes that had promised allegiance to Hannibal before his crossing of the alps, sent a spokesman with 3 Roman prisoners of praetorian (regional leader) rank. Hannibal suggested they keep the hostages, to use against Rome in negotiation of any Gallic soldiers they may be holding prisoner.

Hannibal released all the prisoners he had taken himself. Which was a habit of Hannibal's, which he used to spread his reputation around Italy. The Gauls wouldn't have understood this at all, as they were small tribes and could use any direct advantage they could get on a Roman legion they may do battle with (meaning they needed prisoners, and sometimes even to send decapitated heads of over Roman walls).

Hannibal even bribed Romans when possible, evidence of this is a VERY well treated grainery (Hannibal usually destroyed Roman structures), that was allowed to operate under the control of the same man who the Romans had appointed to it.

The next man to be elected by the Roman senate to face Hannibal, was Tiberius Simpronius. He had achieved many recent victories, and was prepared to do battle with the men from Carthage.

He met his wounded peer (Plubius) on the river Po, and heard about the Gauls breaking rank for Hannibal, as well as Plubius' forecast of Hannibal's possible ability from then through winter. But he did not speak directly about the horsemen that troubled him. He had never seen men who rode bareback with such skill, and who were so savage in battle before.

Sempronius argued that they were 2 Consuls (commanders) within a Roman city, with Roman built walls, and Roman legions (one of them 14,000 one of them 22,000), while African riders foraged the country side, pillaging to eat. He did not mention that elections were coming up, and he did not want to lose his place for lack of action against the invaders.

But Publius was injured, and did not want to go to battle.

So Sempronius imagined a world where he was doing battle alone with the great enemy, and the senate of Rome would be begging for his re-election.

So both armies departed together from the city of Placentia, and took camp further down the river Trebia, and there Sempronius looked for any chance to change from a defensive to aggressive position, whenever he could get around Plubius.

Some Numidian horsemen were in the fields nearby, and Roman scouts chased them, and Sempronius brought 2 legions to the gate to offer battle. They did not respond.

The Winter Solstice (around Christmas) came, and it was early in the morning (his men had not eaten). Sempronius got word that Numidian horsemen were headed towards the gate, and he made everyone prepare for battle that would come after crossing a river.

(the night before that happened at the Roman camp) Hannibal called on his younger brother Mago after surveying the landscape. He told Mago to find 10 men that could handle the harshest conditions, then each of those men were to pick 100 like themselves to follow their command. Mago would be in charge of the group as a whole. He told Mago to hide with the men within a gully (kind of a ditch). In my personal opinion half of the reason Hannibal chose to use ambushes in his strategy was to preserve his bloodline. If he died (as he ran in the front line), he would most likely have a family member to carry on his plans, and family.

Hannibal had his men dig trenches, as there was not much advantage for them anywhere, except for the fact that their enemy had to cross a very large river.

Then that night he conversed with the officers from multiple tribes and people from his home while everyone ate, before sending a group of horsemen towards the Roman gates and Mago took his men to the gully. The Romans had to cross a river, before being chased by a small group of horsemen. Then walked about a mile before coming to the trenches, and begun to be pelted by missiles.

The two armies met, Celtic and Spanish men in the front lines. And by mid morning, the Romans were doing battle on three sides. Then Mago and his men appeared in the rear, the commanders of the Roman forces began calling for a formation to break the four way assault. We are not sure what happened between then and the end, but 10,000 Romans survived more than half of Sempronius' army had been defeated or stranded in the snow and river or captive to Hannibal. Roman serving Gauls were sent home to their tribes, while Romans were held ransom.

Sempronius was not re-elected, while Plubius was. And the Romans began to offer things to their gods to strengthen their nation, and defeat Hannibal (such as a 50 lb gold thinderbolt for Zues)

Gauls came from everywhere around the Po over the next few months, and Hannibal ranked and separated them according to tribal tradition and feud. Many tribes pledged all of their warriors to him.

Hannibal explained he wanted no land from them, and showed them a Roman tablet that claimed Roman rule over the land around the Po, but labeled the Gauls as unequal to the citizens of Rome in the area (they were considered a considerably lower class).

He told them that their allegiance was not to him, but to Carthage, and that their goal was to end Rome's ability to make war, so that the land was as it was 3 centuries before when the Celts had come to the valley.

About 11,000 men joined Hannibal's ranks during this time, and the Celtic tribes asked that he hurry forward, as it was winter and they were not expecting an army to feed.

Hannibal kept his own assortment of wigs and outfits, so that he could look like many different people (no one specific). And no one is sure why, but some people think it was to go on small missions of his own, some think it was to keep from being assassinated. He also carried a ring full of poison, no one is sure why, but the most agreed upon assumption is that he was keeping his promise to his father not to be a friend to Rome, and would kill himself before becoming a prisoner or asset to the Roman military mind.

As Hannibal moved forward, he made every effort possible to see the land ahead with his own eyes.

One thing that would have been troubling Hannibal, is that due to the Carthage loss of sea superiority, he got nothing but rumors about the state of New and Old Carthage. He would have known that an army was headed and landed there, but he would have not known the outcome.

One thing he would have known, is that Rome knew how capable he was. And they would be getting ready faster than before, and for defense instead of for attack on Carthage.

From here Hannibal's men had to cross some unforgiving land, and chose the worst way at first. Straight through a swamp. Some stories say that Hannibal was stung in the eye by a mosquito here, losing vision forever in that eye. But it is not certain if that is true.

After testing the swamp, they backtracked and took another path, where they ended up hitting more swamps after getting a good ways.

At this point all of Hannibal's elephants died, except maybe one. (some records say one, some records say none). Hanno finally found the path that led them out of the Swamp, and into the Fiesole valley.

Here they passed through the ancient Etruscan lands towards Rome, still not finding any large cities to plunder.

Hannibal passed through the Etruscan territory, and was told by his spies that a new (commander) Consul had been elected for the Roman senate (Gaius Flaminius). And when Hannibal's men began reciting the numbers of men that Gaius commanded, Hannibal replied “What use is this parroting of numbers? Give me one look into the mind of Flaminius”.

Flaminius left in haste after being elected, and skipped rituals that were necessary to give him his power (Like the Inauguration ceremony in America).

Flaminius moved North to wait for Hannibal, then let him pass and followed behind (which would have been easy… Follow the smoke and fire). Flaminius' plan was to come behind Hannibal, so that he would be trapped between his and another Roman army.

Hannibal's cavalry, who were always in back, saw the Romans in pursuit and warned Hannibal, who prepared his men and the landscape. Making sure to set a perfect ambush, and the angry Celts (for Rome had been pillaging their land) in front.

The Romans did not expect defeat. They had a new commander who was distinguished in battle, and had brought extra wagons to carry goods from battle with the Carthiganians, as well as chains for the prisoners they were sure to capture.

The Roman army passed a road that went around a lake, and narrowed into a small pass, forcing their cavalry “wings” into the bulk ranks of infantry. Mist made sure they didn't see too far in front of them, and missiles started flying out of it (The Baltic Slingmen). As the legions moved forward they were attacked from the hillside blocking them from three sides, and soon the hidden horsemen came charging out.

The Romans pushed closer and closer together as they were slain, and pushed from 4 sides. Eventually it came to the point where Hannibal's men were able to see each other on either side of the Romans, who began to panic in the small hallway they were left to maneuver, surrounded by a wall of enemies.

Romans were fighting back to back, and attempting to run, but there was not even room for retreat in the middle, so many were forced to make a last stand or die running. Some of them ran into the water of the lake, and were chased only to be slain by horsemen.

By 10 AM the battle was over, and 6,000 fleeing prisoners were taken, making a total of 10,000 prisoners. Before this no “lesser” army had beaten a Roman one to such an extent. And in Italy.

Flaminius' body was not recovered, most likely it was stripped and tossed in a pile or the lake by the Celts and his jewelry was taken for prizes, as he had been a thorn in the Gauls side for a long time.

“I have not come to make war on the Italians, but to aid Italians against Rome”

Hannibal's fathers veterans wanted to storm Rome, but Hannibal knew that he needed to strengthen his men. He suggested that they wait a year, but so they headed to the opposite coast, with their prisoners and new equipment. On the way they ran into 4,000 high ranking Roman horsemen and took half prisoner after killing the other half.

Rumors spread in the streets of Rome that the city would be evacuated when the soldiers of Carthage came, and women were banished from public gatherings as they cried in the streets.

Rome elected a dictator, Fabius Verrucosus, who had warned them against battle in the first place. The first thing he did was make sacrifices to the gods of cattle, and ordered the construction of a new temple.

Fabius also started a “scorched earth” strategy, where they burned everything and left before the army of Carthage got to any village they were headed to. But they got strange word that Hannibal was burning land himself, and kidnapping anyone of military age in places that were allied to Rome.

Then Hannibal headed to territory that was hardly under Roman rule, which confused them even more.

For the next few months Hannibal trained his army, and improved their equipment where he could. He moved south as he recruited and bribed the surrounding city states, and Fabius watched from a distance. Small groups would stop Hannibal's men from getting to far when they foraged, but they would not engage in open battle.

Hannibal sold the prisoners, meaning for the first time Roman slaves would be appearing on Greek shores, which would cause much surprise and excitement in the ancient world. At this time he also asked Macedonia to take arms against Rome.

Fabius continued to follow and watch as Hannibal ravaged Italy, and he began to lost support of his people (who had made him dictator).

Hannibal walked into a place where he was caught in a valley between mountains and ravines, and Fabius saw an opportunity to do just what Hannibal had done to the Romans previously.

4,000 men were sent to block the exit, while the main force was sent into the valley to face and block the Romans in.

Hannibal prepared a diversion. The men in charge of the herds were told to take maybe 1,000 head of cattle and tie bundles of sticks to their horns, and take them to the head of the valley. The army was allowed to rest, then Hannibal had the herdsmen ignite the bundles and send the herd running with a small group of men to make a bunch of noise.

The Romans saw what they thought was thousands of torches and men, and began charging for battle. They met the cattle, and had no idea what was going on. Suddenly, missiles began to pelt them, the Romans broke rank and deserted their posts, and later Fabius would be blamed for not taking action. And Hannibal's army escaped.

The next battle (the Battle of Cannae) would play out in Hannibal's mind months before it ever played out on the battlefield. Hannibal began small skirmishes with the consul Minucius, and when Hannibal retreated, he sent news to Rome and the people made him co-dictator. He chased Hannibal further, where they engaged again in Smanium and Hannibal retreated.

Hannibal could see that the people of Rome were struggling in terms of leadership, and wanted to use this against them. Hannibal only had around 40,000 to 50,000 men at this point, even with the new recruits, while Rome claimed 770,000 able bodied men (before Hannibal came to Italy that is). He needed any advantage he could get, as he knew these Roman armies would be getting bigger and bigger. But at the same time, more restless and less experienced.

When Fabius was not re-elected as Dictator, neither was Minucius. The people elected a man named “Varro” who was promising a swift and able victory over Hannibal. Most of this was due to Fabius' strategy of cutting off the enemies food supply, which was taking too long for the Rome's liking. More than 100 senators resigned to join the legions, the people of Rome were ready to end this, and the army they put together numbered 85,000.

Hannibal attacked a grainery in Cannae, and the word was sent to dispatch all forces to snuff him out. They found an abondoned camp, and sent back reports that they were already getting spoils from the Carthiginians because they had left silverware and other items, as well as their fires still lit (so they had just been there).

Hannibal had retreated towards the river Aufidus, and the Roman legions followed him to the open fields of Cannae.

Hannibal watched the Roman army from a distance as it advanced on him, the wind whipped dirt into the air, but his men stood with their backs facing the breeze, so the Romans would get the bulk of the disadvantage.

One of Hannibal's officers, a man named Gisco/Gisgo, shook his head in defeat and said to Hannibal: “It is a most amazing thing to see such a number of men”

Hannibal turned to him and said: “I'll tell you something more amazing… In all those numbers, there is not one among them named Gisco”.

This bolstered the spirits of his army, and they needed it. They were made up of about 45,000 men, and they were about to engage 85,000 men.

Hannibal set up his line in the shape of a loose “V” kind of how geese fly. So in the front was a line of slingmen, then next (and the first to rush into battle) would be the Spaniards and Celts, then random infantry (which would not be noticeable to the Romans, who would first see the other groups in front of them), on the wings would be some of the horsemen, who would see the least amount of combat, so as to swoop in at the end and tear into the sides of the Roman army, forcing them back and last but not least, Hanno was hidden with a group of heavy horsemen. And Hannibal's men knew that each individual one of them, would have at least 2 if not 3 men coming at him (because they are 45,000 VS 85,000).

85,000 men (cavalry, etc) walked, basically shoulder to shoulder, smashing into Hannibal's line. But Hannibal had drilled his men brilliantly over the past year. Where in the past, their lines had been solely divided on lines of nationality, not they were working as units, and even in mixed battalions to create even deadlier groups than before.

Soon, the Carthiginian army began to reverse the V formation, for a moment becoming a straight line, then inverting to create a V in the opposite direction from before. Closing in on the Romans.

What happened next can be described to my generation as a “Pac Man”. Just imagine two equal squares, one is red one is blue. Now, make the blue square slowly eat the other one like Pac Man. First there is 4 pie slices left, then 3, then 2, then eventually you've got what looks like a (strange) mouth (v shape) wrapped around something red. That is what happened to the Romans.

A smoke signal was sent up, and Hanno's men jumped into the battle. As the cavalry came, some of the Roman cavalry got rid of their horses to make a formation, and not many of them lived very long after that. Then the Carthage cavalry chased the Roman cavalry, leaving dead Romans in their wake.

Now Hanno carried out his second orders, which were to circle and block the rear of the Romans, and Varro was almost encircled, so he ran further and further away. Later a Roman writer states that Varro had hardly 50 men, while the other consul lay dying with the rest of the army.

At this point the Romans didn't even had room to use their own weapons (as there were still tens of thousands of them left), and were most likely even trampling each other in the small hallway they were left in the enemy mass. Then the Carthiginian cavalry came back for another attack.

2,000 Romans ran to Cannae and were captured. 70,000 Romans died on the battle field. And the rest ran to hide wherever they could. His officers came to him reporting a complete and total victory. He ordered them to find the body of the dead consul, and dispose of it with the utmost respect.

Hannibal decided to have a feast, and his peers suggested that he continue on and take Rome. But Hannibal had not come here to become dictator of Rome, he had come to end the ability of Rome to make war, and in that task he felt he had flourished.

Hannibal had killed many Roman nobles (including some who had just come to watch), and 80 senators. The next time the senate met, 177 make-shift senators were used. And the blame for the great loss fell on Varro, even though 3 members of a prestigious military family had been present in the battle (and all died).

Carthage had only 5,710 killed or wounded.

Fabius took control immediately, and sent out scouts to learn of the news was true. They came back with news that there was NO Roman encampment, the Roman army had been entirely vanquished. They say that there was not a single family in Rome that was not effected directly by Hannibal's war at this point, due to the sheer amount of dead Romans.

Fabius is really the only man who could have handled this, as he was the only senator that didn't want to start the war in the first place, due to the possibility of something like this. (so he had probably been planning for it all along once it started).

He banished women from the streets, and no one was allowed to mourn in public. Every citizen was to wait at home for news, and the streets would be silent. No one was even allowed to leave the city. And people were buried alive in sacrifice.

Door to door, people began to say “Hannibal is at the gates”, all over Rome.

But Hannibal knew that he had neither siege equipment to enter the walls of Rome, nor the military might he would need to enter and finish the campaign he was already in the middle of (which should have basically been impossible up to this point, but he did it anyways).

So he waited on Carthage to do its part.

Hannibal sent boats to both Greece and Carthage to share the news of Cannae, as well as news to the Celts and Italians that the last barrier had been broken, and the way was open to the heart of Rome and revolt was possible in Italy.

Hannibal sent prisoners to Rome for ransom, as well as Carthalo to accept any terms of peace Rome may have for them at this time.

Carthalo came back, Rome had said to him that no Carthiginian was allowed within their walls, and they would not pay ransom for any prisoners of Cannae. Rome itself released its criminals and debtors from prison, in order that they take arms against Hannibal. Women cried, and spat at people who were showing no emotion. Bueto, the new dictator, banned all games and feasts, someone was caught wearing a banquet wreath. He was taken before the court, and sentenced to prison where he stayed for 14 years (the rest of the time Hannibal was in Italy).

Rome fortified it's city walls in wait of Hannibal, who went instead to Naples.

Greek states began to declare that they would rather have Carthiginian rule than Roman rule, and the celtic tribes begin operating in huge numbers and kill the Roman border army's commanding officer. The people of Capua come to him with terms of surrender, asking that they not have to serve in the military.

At this time, Hannibal sends his younger brother Mago to Rome with exact news of his victory, as well as news of the allegiance of Apulia, Samnium & Calabria. As well as 6,000 gold rings, which each symbolized the death of a Roman noble. In return for the rings, Mago asks that the Council of Carthage send 4,000 Numidian horsemen, and 40 elephants to Hannibal. The council agrees, and sends 24,000 extra soldiers with Mago to Spain (where Hannibal started his trek across Europe).

Hannibal headed south to Capua, and began his role as a diplomat. His goal was not to conquer Rome, his goal was to spark revolution across Italy. They brought their Roman official to him in chains for execution, and he said that it would be better to send him to Carthage, and soon Capua would be able to enforce laws of its own. He continued across Italy to places he had and hadn't been already, recruiting new people and possibly even running into the people or descendants of the people who fought with his father at the mountain fortress.

Hannibal went to take Naples, a port that rivaled Romes, and during that time his 4,000 horsemen and 40 elephants arrived.

Hannibal's army obtained a group of Bruttains and at this time the army was truly the Italian resistance, made up of more Italian nations possibly than even Rome itself. At this time Philip V of Macedonia sent diplomats to Hannibal to sign treaties of allegiance against Rome, and this must have made Hannibal extremely proud, as Macedonia was Alexander the Greats birthplace, and had only lived about 100-200 years before Hannibal himself. Syracuse (a Greek state) signed a similar agreement.

For two winters, Hannibal trained the new men, while fresh soldiers continued to be sent by allies.

The next year (215 BC) Rome met a few bad omens (according to record) carvings of the gods sweat blood, and a cow gave birth to a baby horse. They had funeral games (early gladiator events) with a large number of extra gladiators.

Rome was being extremely unfair to any non citizen of Rome (even allies within their borders) and many people went to Hannibal, seeking to align with him over the tyranny of Rome. ex: Capua, the city Hannibal was staying in, was asked to raise 3,000 soldiers against Hannibal. They went to Hannibal instead and asked for help, and Rome kept their first born sons who were in the city. When the sons tried to escape, they recaptured some of them and threw them off a cliff. Capua, of course, was then an ally of Hannibal.

Rome's strategy became to send experienced leaders (with armies) to every river, every city and every wall Hannibal encountered.

Hannibal continued to work on taking over ports and sway the public, and the lower class was even fighting to open gates for him against the upper class. And Hannibal had to go from place to place, acting like an officer over this new Carthage owned Italy (they did not claim the territory, but Hannibal reigned supreme in the region).

Hannibal and his men break into one particular harbor (Tarentum) which would have been a great vantage point for him via ocean, but while he did win the battle for the harbor, the Romans were still within a walled part of the town, hidding and causing problems. So Hannibal had the port, but he couldn't use it.

One night Roman soldiers came by night and by boat to Syracuse. The city had never been taken before, as it was actually 3 cities over an 11 mile expanse, but the Romans had superior ability in close combat, so if they could get close, they could take the city piece by piece. So slowly, they advanced on their boats, carrying ladders.

But Syracuse had anti-siege equipment created by Archimedes (a stargazer), and soon the boats were torn apart by iron balls the size of a baby cow, and chains fitted with iron spears.

The Romans took to an assault by land, but even more equipment tore them apart.

Also present that day were a few of Hannibal's officers, as well as some Roman deserters and Greek soldiers. And according to one ancient historian, prisoners were released in order to defend the town. The Romans eventually made it into the walls by treachery, and made it through the upper class region of the city with almost no resistance. They proceeded to kill the star gazer who had invented the siege equipment. This caused a huge stir in the town.

Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal (not the same Hasdrubal who was assassinated, that was a brother in law) was sent with an army towards Italy, but his army was stopped by the Scipio brothers, who were from a very prestigious military family.

Hannibal simply did not have enough aid at this point, he had been given 4,000 horsemen and 40 elephants, as well as a good number of men from across Italy. But he was facing Rome… Walls, Cities, Siege machines and a still formidable army. Hannibal had struck many perfect blows that had taken Rome off its feet, but he needed the force to drive a stake into the heart of Rome. And with the 24,000 soldiers not coming to back him up, once they were defeated on the Ebro with Hasdrubal, Hannibal had very little chance of defeating Rome.

Hannibal was the Marshall ruler over most of Italy for 11 years before the young son (Scipio) of a great Roman commander said: “You talk of nothing but Hannibal; You think of nothing but Hannibal, but your enemy is Carthage”

to which the reply was “Hannibal is a weeks march from the gates, while Carthage is in Africa”

And Scipio said “If you destroy Carthage, what is left of Hannibal?”

Scipio would be considered a strange young person, in that he enjoyed being alone. He would say “One is never less alone, than when one is most alone”. and was effeminate, but had the normal wavy hair of the Greeks.

The public believed that Scipio's abilities were god inspired, but god inspired or not he had great belief in himself. He was given Roman rule in Spain, and many critics said that nothing awaited him their but the graves of his father and uncle, and most likely himself.

He began by sending parties to the surrounding towns, and finding out what tribes were considered “good” and “why?”, and what hostages were held and “why?”, and what had happened good or bad over the past 8 years and “why?”.

And Scipio always had a plan that was based on the failure of others, as well as the success of the enemy. And he made his men feel as if he always knew what was going to happen when they actually met Hannibal.

Scipio famously had a dream showing him that one man would be given supernatural ability by the god Neptune, and he would be able to scale the Carthaginian wall (of the first city he attacked) he told his men of the dream, he told them that the mans extra ability would be clear to all and that he would be given a crown of gold for his efforts. He ended up taking a small group of men himself with ladders around to a wall that was blocked by the sea, but “with Neptune's divine intervention” it was held back, and they were able to break into the fortress. Hannibal's brother was in this town, and Rome was given new hope.

At this point Hannibal defended a city from a Roman attack, then headed towards Rome with all of his military might burning farms along the way to get the attention of the Roman armies.

But if you pay attention Hannibal was not actually headed to Rome, he was simply trying to get the attention of the two Roman armies that were attacking Capua, so that they would follow him to a battlefield of his choosing.

The news of his march reached the public of Rome and it basically had people running frantically in the streets. “Hannibal ad Portas!!” Or “Hannibal is at the gates!!” was a common expression.

Fabius could tell what was going on though. He knew that Hannibal could not siege the Roman walls and he knew Hannibal knew that. He warned everyone: “He has not come to besiege Rome but to break the siege of Capua.”

Hannibal made it to the Latium and took over a Roman forum (Roman mall basically) and word made it to Rome that a sale had been made at the forum while it was under Hannibal's control. So Hannibal jokingly sent a messenger to the Romans offering to sell their own shops to them. He made it out with tons of gold and silver and over the next year this almost caused a Roman rebellion because the senate was still requesting taxes, but not ending the war.

Finally, Fabius took to the battle field again. But very strategically.

The Back of the Book

Quotes From Various Historic People and Philosophers

Marikare (around 2100 BC)

“Be skillful in speech, that you may be strong, it is strength of the tongue, and words are braver than all fighting… a wise man is a school for the magnates, and those who are aware of his knowledge do not attack him

Do justice, that you may live long upon Earth. Calm the weeper, do not oppress the widow, do not oust a man from his father's property, do not degrade magnates from their seats. Beware of punishing wrongfully; do not kill, for it will not profit you.

Instill the love of you into all the world, for a good character is what is remembered.”

The Book of the Dead

“Hail to you gods… On the day of the great reckoning. Behold me, I have come to you, without sin, without guilt, without evil, without a witness against me, without one whom I have wronged… Rescue me, protect me, do not accuse me before the great god!

I am the one pure of mouth, pure of hands”

Love Songs of the New Kingdom ( around3500 years old)

“My love for you is mixed throughout my body…

So hurry to see your lady, like a stallion on the track, or like a falcon swooping down to its papyrus marsh.

Heaven sends down the love of her as a flame falls in the hay.”

“The voice of the wild goose, caught by the bait, cries out. Love of you holds me back, and I can't loosen it at all…

I did not set my traps today, love of you has thus entrapped me.”

“Sweet pomegranate wine in my mouth is bitter as the gall of birds.”

“But your embraces alone give life to my heart; may Amun give me what I have found for all eternity.”

“The voice of the turtledove speaks out. It says: Day breaks, which way are you going? Lay off, little bird, must you so scold me?

Suti and Hor, Hyms to the sun god (about 3500 years ago)

“Creator uncreated. Sole one, unique one, who traverses eternity, remote one, with millions under his care; your splendor is like heaven's splendor”

“Beneficent mother of gods and men… Valiant shepherd who drives his flock, their refuge, made to sustain them… He makes the season with the months, heat as he wishes, cold as he wishes… every land rejoicing at his rising, every day gives praise to him.”

The Great Hymn to Aten (around 3300 years ago)

“Splendid you rise in heaven's lightland, O living Aten, creator of life! When you set in the western lightland, Earth is darkness as if in death. Every lion comes from its den, all the serpents bite; Darkness hovers, Earth is silent, as their marker rests in the lightland.

Earth brightens when you dawn in lightland, when you shine as Aten of daytime; as you dispel the dark, as you cast rays, the two lands are in festivity. Awake they stand on their feet, you have roused them.

The entire land sets out to work, all beasts browse on their herbs; Trees, herbs are sprouting, birds fly from their nests… Ships fare north, fare south as well, roads lie open when you rise; The fish in the river dart before you, Your rays are in the midst of the sea.

How many are your deeds, though hidden from sight, O sole god beside whom there is none! You made the Earth as you wished, you alone.”

Amenemope

“Beginning of the teaching of life, the instructions for well being… Knowing how to answer one who speaks, to reply to one who sends a message.

The truly silent, who keep apart, he is like a tree grown in a meadow. It greens, it doubles its yield, it stands in front of its lord. Its fruit is sweet, its shade delightful, its end comes in the garden.

Do not move the markers on the border of the fields.

Better is poverty in the hands of the god, than wealth in the storehouse; Better is bread with a happy heart, than wealth with vexation.

Do not set your heart on wealth… Do not strain to seek increases, what you have, let it suffice you. If riches come to you by theft, they will not stay the night with you… They made themselves wings like geese, and flew away to the sky.”

The Roman Missal

“I will go in to the alter of God. Through my fault, through my fault, through my most gracious fault.

The Lord be with you. And with your spirit.

Eternal rest give them, O Lord: and let perpetual light shine upon them.

Day of wrath, that day, the Earth will dissolve in ashes, as David and the Sibyl say.

Lord have mercy on us.

Glory to God in the highest. And on Earth peace to men of good will.

Lamb of god, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us; Lamd of God, who takes away the sins of the world, give us peace.

For this is my body.

For this is the chalice of my blood, of the new eternal covenant; the mystery of faith; which shall be shed for you and for many unto the forgiveness of sins.

O happy fault, which has deserved to have such and so mighty a redeemer.”

The Song of the Harper (A song about death that is Almost 5,000 years old)

“There is no one who can return from there, to describe their nature, to describe their dissolution. That he may still our desires, Until we reach the place where they have gone.

It is not given to men to take his goods with him. No one goes away and then comes back.”

“Now I see that going out into the testing ground of men it is the tongue and not the deed that wins the day” - Sophocles (It depends how people decide something happened, it doesn't matter how it actually happens. If everyone thinks you're a bad person for doing something, you are a bad person to the world)

“Throughout your life choose truth and your words will be more believable than other people's oaths” - Isocrates (If you tell the truth all the time, people won't need you to promise them things in order to believe you)

“You should not honor men more than truth” - Plato (Don't let someone lie, cheat and steal just because you like them, even when they are doing it to other people)

“Plato is dear to me, yet dearer is truth” - Aristotle (Be willing to think for yourself, even win someone that you think is better than you tells you something. If you think it is wrong, question it)

“False words are not only evil in themselves, but they infect the soul with evil” - Socrates

“Simple is the speech of truth” - Aeschylus (Lying or persuading are a lot harder than telling the truth)

“It is unjust to be upset with him who tells the truth” - Plato (If someone tells you the truth and you don't like it, check yourself)

“No lie ever reaches old age” - Sophocles (People will figure out the truth eventually, and usually it won't take long)

“Nobody likes the bringer of bad news” - Sophocles (Nobody likes to hear bad things, but we have a new phrase in modern times to add to this “Don't shoot the messenger” )

“I have never wished to cater to the crowd; for what I know they do not approve I do not know” Eipcurus (Don't try to make everyone happy, because no one can give everyone what they want)

“The truth is always the strongest argument” - Sophocles (The truth is usually the most believable version of events, so might as well tell it that way)

“I am bound to tell what I am told, but not in every case to believe it” - Herodotus (Just because you hear and share a rumor, does not mean you should believe the rumor, or tell anyone it is fact)

“Time will reveal everything. It is a babbler and speaks even when not asked” - Euripides (Everything comes uncovered eventually)

“Violence is accompanied by hate and danger. Yet, you can achieve the same result using persuasion and friendliness minus the danger” - Xenophon (The things you achieve with violence can be achieved by much safer means)

“Force has no place where there is need of skill” - Herodotus (If you need something to get done that requires patience and skill, you will not get it done any faster by trying to make things get done faster)

“Like a statue that is fixed steadily on its base, the virtuous man ought to be stable in character” - Socrates (Be who you are, all the time, it's easier that way anyways)

“Before virtue, gods have places sweat” - Hesiod (Sometimes it's harder to do the right thing)

“He who in his own house in virtuous will also be just in civic affairs” - Sophocles (Have integrity, be a good person when no one is watching, and your actions will be the same in public)

“All of the Earth's gold is not worth virtue” - Plato (If you have all the money in the world, and can't trust anyone around you, you would be better off without the money)

“Virtue itself is not enough, there must also be the power to translate it into action” - Aristotle (Practice what you preach)

“Men's ambition and their desire to make money, are among the most frequent causes of deliberate injustices” - Aristotle (This one is pretty clear… Money is the Root of all Evil)

“Slight not at what is near, through aiming at what is far” - Euripedes (This means, don't sweat the small stuff, make big goals and the small stuff won't seem so big)

“Shoals of corpses shall witness mute, even to generations to come, before the eyes of men that we ought never, being mortal, to caste our sights to high” - Aeschylus (I have not read the piece this is from, so I am only using what is available to figure this out, but I think this one is saying that we are all going to die, so try to make goals that you feel like you can achieve… Because if you set your goals too high, then there will be war that continues on past your life)

“My Father will leave nothing for me to do” - Alexander the Great (This one is pretty self explanatory. Philip II was Alexander's father and king of Macedonia before him. He turned the community from herds men, to political, militant, successful people and took over most of the surrounding regions. So Alexander felt like there was nothing left for him to do when he grew up. It was like he felt Philip II was doing like in the lion king “One day all of this will be yours”… But you don't get to help shape it…)

“We should praise the person that feels angry on the right grounds and against the right persons, and also in the right moment and for the right amount of time” - Aristotle (I don't completely agree with this, as “right” is relative. But what it is saying is, it's ok to be mad sometimes, don't hate on someone who is mad about the right thing)

“Whoever grows angry amid troubles, applies a drug worse than the disease” - Aristotle (If you get mad because something is not working out, it is not going to help you get through it any faster)

“Wherefore the sick, the necessitous,[those at war], love sick, the thirsty, in a word, all those who desire something but cannot obtain it, are prone to anger and easily excited , especially against those who make light of their present condition; For instance, the sick man is easily provoked in regard to his illness, the necessitous in regard to his poverty, the warrior in regard to his warlike affairs, the lover in regard to love afairs, and so will all the rest; for the passion present in his mind in each case paves the way for his anger” - Aristotle (People are easily angered when people that don't care about their passion, talk about their passion)

“Arrogance is impediment to wisdom” - Bias of Priene (Arrogance gets in the way of good judgement)

“Whoever think he alone has speech, or possesses speech or mind above others, when unfolded such men are seen to be empty” - Sophocles (When someone is literally willing to boast about their intelligence all the time, it usually means they don't have any actual intelligence to share with anyone)

“Wit is educated insolence” - Aristotle (Wit is just a smart way to be a complete dick)

“Character is Destiny” - Heraclitus (Whatever kind of person you are projecting to other people, is what you are most likely to end up like)

“It is not the oath that makes us believe the man, but the man the oath” - Aeschylus (If you are a known liar, no one is going to trust your word)

“Only do such acts as you will not regret later” - Pythagras (Do things you can be proud of)

“In every one of us there are two ruling and directing principles, whose guidance we follow wherever they may lead. The one being an innate desire of pleasure; the other, an acquired judgement which aspires after excellence” - Socrates, quoted by Plato (There is a force in you that makes you want certain things, and another force that comes from experiencing good things and is a more controlled thing)

“Badness can be got easily and in shoals; the road to her is smooth, and she lives very near us. But between us and the goodness, the gods put the sweat of our brow; long and steep is the path that leads to her” - Hesiod (Stealing, cheating and stomping on people is easy. Working with them is a little harder)

“We ought to do everything both cautiously and confidently at the same time” - Epictetus (Be passionate and proud of what you do, but watch your step)

“No act of kindness, no matter how small, is ever wasted” - Aesop (No matter how small a good deed is, it could inspire an infinite number of other good deeds, and in itself was not useless, even without the effect)

“Kindness is ever the begetter of kindness” - Sophocles (Kindness breeds kindness, so if you are kind, it can make more kind things happen, and of course, some of those good things will come in your direction)

“If we always helped each other, no one would need luck” - Menander (This means, that luck is only part of a competitive system. If I see you are “down on your luck” and I help you out, you don't need good luck, as I am your good luck)

“It is the task of a good man to help those in misfortune” - Sophocles (You can't be a good man if you just help your friends and fund projects/buy things that come from well established producers of the products you need)

“He who cares for his brother, cares for himself” - Xenophon (Looking out for others means that you will have others looking out for you)

“Words are the physicians of a mind diseased” - Aeschylus (Being introduced to the right idea, can make anyone a “better person” )

“In generosity we are equally singular, acquiring our friends by conferring, not receiving, favors. Yet, of course, the doer of the favor is the firmer friend of the two, in order by continued kindness to keep the recipient in his debt; while the debtor feels less keenly from the very consciousness that the return favor he makes will be a payment, and not a free gift” - Pericles (Basically he is saying that we make friends my “granting” people favors of whatever kind, and that the person that gives the original favor is the better friend, as they gave the favor out of a desire for goodness or friendship, while the recipient isn't necessarily a bad friend, but by default is paying the first person back the next time they help them with anything.)

“Heroes have the whole Earth for their tomb” - Pericles (If you do great things, the stories told about you, the impression you left and the knowledge passed down from you will do far more for everyone than any head stone)

“To preserve, trusting in what hopes he has, is courage in a man” - Euripides (Courage means not giving up hope)

“The bravest are surely those who have a clear vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and, notwithstanding, go out to face it” - Thucydides (Facing your fears and handling power is a brave thing to do)

“Danger gleams like sunshine to a brave mans eyes” - Euripides (Where you see a bad neighborhood which should be avoided, someone else might just see the place he has to go once a day, or he might even see a play ground)

“Brave hearts do not back down” - Sophocles (A brave person sticks to their guns)

“Courage is to be undismayed by fears of death and be confident in alarms and have brave face in face of dangers, and to prefer a fine death over security, and to be the cause of victory. It also belongs to courage to labor and endure and play a manly part. Courage is accompanied by confidence and bravery and daring, and also by perseverance and endurance” - Aristotle (Courage means facing situations that could lead to your death, as well as keeping a level head in intense situations. Bravery also includes not sitting behind walls and armor, but facing the world and wanting to die doing what you love. And being courageous will inspire other good qualities)

“The brave endure their labors, the cowardly are worth nothing at all” - Euripides (Stick with what you are doing, it is the brave thing to do)

“Those who cannot bravely face danger are the slaves of their attackers” - Aristotle (stand up for yourself or people will walk all over you)

“When a man does not shrink from a deed, he is not scared by a word” - Sophocles (If you don't do things you have to hide, you will never have to be ashamed of things people say about you)

“These are Sparta's walls” - King Agesilaus II (He was asked why Sparta had no walls, so he pointed to his soldiers, and said that they were the walls)

“Fortune is not on the side of the fainthearted” - Sophocles (If you want something, you have to go for it, don't be scared or nothing will ever get done towards your goals)

“Don't you realize that war has need, not of those who run away, but of those who stand their ground?” - King Agesilaus II (He said this after hearing a soldier ask to buy a horse)

“He is the best man who, when making his plans, fears and reflects on everything that can happen to him, but in the moment of action is bold” - Herodotus (Plan things expecting the worst, carry out your actions hoping for the best)

“The Spartans do not ask how many are the enemy, but where are they.” - King Agis (If something needs to be done, do it)

“I think that just as one man's body is naturally stronger than another's for labor, so one man's soul is naturally braver than another's in danger. For I notice that men brought up under the same laws and customs differ widely in dating” - Socrates (Some people are good at working and staying in once place, some people are good at moving forward and facing danger)

“The young men are the walls of Sparta, and the points of their spears its boundaries” - King Antalcidas (Meaning, the soldiers defend Sparta, while their weapons tell them how far they can infringe on the borders of others)

“Come and take them…” - King Leonidas (When he was asked by Xerxes to hand over his weapons. Basically, don't give up on your ideas, even in the face of impossible odds)

“Appearances are often deceiving” - Aesop (Some times you think you are doing something good, but really you are the over all evil one. And vice versa)

“I have learned to hate all traitors, and there is no disease that I spit on more than treachery” - Aeschylus (Basically saying that snitches can't be trusted, even if they help you at one point. And getting things through lies is wothy of being spat on)

“Words are but the shadows of actions” - Democritus (You can say something all day, but what matters is if you will actually do something)

“It is difficulties that show what men are” - Epictetus (Times of peace and wealth don't show your true side. The way you treat a struggle shows your true side)

“Consider at what price you sell your freedom of will. If you must sell it, man, at least do not sell it cheap” - Epictetus (How much is your soul worth? How easy is it for someone to change your mind?)

“Bear and Forbear” - Epictetus (Wear some things out openly on your sleeve, keep some things to yourself)

“Our aim is not to know what courage is but to be courageous, not to know what justice is but to be just, in the same way as we want to be healthy rather than to ascertain what health is, and to be in good condition of body rather than to ascertain what good bodily condition is” - Aristotle (Don't just think, do)

“Fortune is unstable, while our will is free” - Epicurus (Free will, will always be with you. Money can leave you very easily)

“Self-will in the man who does not reckon wisely is by itself the weakest of all things” - Aeschylus (If you don't make decisions for yourself, why do you have free will?)

“The beginning is more than half the whole task” - Aristotle (Getting started is the hardest part)

“We have a man who does not boast, but whose hand sees what must be done” - Aeschylus (If you do the right thing, it's ok for no one to notice)

“Reason is not measured by size or height, but by principle” - Epictetus (You cannot measure reason, it is simply something that a person sees as reasonable or not)

“By law a man is free and another slave. But by nature there is no difference between them. That's why such a relationship is not just but, rather, violent” - Aristotle (Slavery is not ok)

“All men believe that justice means equality” - Aristotle (Justice means making sure everyone gets treated the same)

“It is clear that not in one thing alone, but in many ways, equality and freedom of speech are a good thing” - Herodotus (Keeping freedoms away from people keeps the future away from everyone)

“Inequality is everywhere at the bottom of faction, for, in general, faction arises from men's striving for what is equal” - Aristotle (At the bottom of a new political organization, there is inequality, or else the faction would have not began)

“Every creature is better or worse because of its own particular virtue or vice. Can it be, then, that man is the only creature without a special virtue, but he must have recourse to his hair, and his clothes, and his posterity” - Epictetus (It seems as if animals have certain moral codes, while humans tend o focus more on hair, clothes and children)

“If we look to our laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way. If a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition” - Pericles (A society must be equal to all of its citizens, or the government will be a bunch of people trying to get their way)

“The art of being a slave is to rule one's master” - Diogenes (The best slave is a slave who can trick his master into thinking he is a dumb slave that can't do or plan anything, while he plans and does things)

“Equality will never be found among humans” - Euripides (Humans will always work against each other)

“Cowards do not count in battle; they are there, but not in it” - Euripides (If a man is scared of battle, he is not going to make a good person to stand next to in peril)

“Most of men are naturally apt to be swayed by fear rather than reverence, and to refrain from evil rather because of the punishment that it brings than because of its own foulness” - Aristotle (Most people follow fear, not what is good. And most people will follow the laws because of the punishment, not because of what they stand for)

“The coward calls the brave man rash; the rash man calls him a coward” - Aristotle (People are what they are, and they are different)

“Cowardice is to be easily excited by chance alarms, and especially by fear of death or of bodily injuries, and to think it better to save oneself by any means than to meet a fine end. Cowardice is accompanied by softness, inmannliness, faint-heartedness, fondness of life; and it also has an element of cautiousness and submissiveness of character” - Aristotle (Cowards are easily startled, and comes with other bad things)

“To him who is afraid, everything rustles” - Sophocles (If you are scared, you will scare yourself more)

“Why should he who is scared be careful?” - (Think about why you are scared before you actually let yourself be scared)

“Abhor flatterers as you would deceivers; for both, if trusted, injure those who trust them. If you admit as friends men who seek your favor for the lowest ends, your life will be lacking in friends who will risk your displeasure for the highest good” - Isocrates (Friends who need your help are the best, as they need your help. People who flatter you or deceive you just want something that they could have themselves without you one day)

“A tyrant is really nothing but a slave since he accepts flattery and deceit and in turn flatters those who are base. A trait of a tyrant is never to know true freedom nor true friendship” - Plato (Someone who makes other people do their will without consideration for the other person will are actually a slave to the other persons will, as it is still there and will still be active in any plans that are carried out)

“Most men like flattery, for a flatterer is a friend who is your inferior, or pretends to be so, and to love you more than you love him; but to be loved is felt to be nearly the same as to be honored, which most people covet” - Aristotle (It is natural to want to be flattered, but be cautious of anyone who is willing to flatter you)

“He is free who lives as he wills, who is subject neither to compulsion, nor hindrance, nor force, whose choices are unhampered, whose desire attain their end, whose aversions do not fall into what they would avoid” - Epictetus (Being free means being able to do what you want, without being slowed down, and without having to force your way into getting it done. And being free means your choices see themselves through)

“Nature has given us one tongue and two ears, so that we would listen twice as much as we speak” - Zeno of Elea (Sometimes the answer to what you looking for is in someone else's question, and people you wouldn't expect to say something important could say the most important thing of all. So listen)

“Wise is he who compresses many thoughts into few words” - Aristophanes (If you can say many things, without going around in circles to explain them, you have a gift)

“Consider before acting, to avoid foolishness: It is the worthless man who speaks and acts thoughtlessly” - Pythagoras (Literally THINK before you act. Do not just go through life as if it is not human activity that requires human attention, and make sure you thoroughly way the options in any new situation)

“It is man who endure toil and dare dangers that achieve glorious deeds, and it is a lovely thing to live with courage and to die leaving behind an everlasting renown” - Alexander the Great (If you want to be known for doing great things, you must face great problems and it is great to lave behind a legacy)

“The nearest way to glory is to strive to be what you wish to be thought to be” - Socrates (The quickest way to become what you want to become, is to act like the person you want to be)

“Glory in excess is fraught with peril; the lofty peak is struck by Zeus' thunderbolt” - Aeschylus (If you get to a position of power, you will always have people who are looking to knock you off your perch)

“Toil, says the proverb, is the sire of fame” - Euripides (Hard work is the road to fame)

“I see that my funeral rites will be imposing” - Alexander the Great (I have not read the piece this is from, so I can only assume based on what I know of Alexander. But this was on his deathbed, and I think he believed that when he died people were going to overlook their respect for him and go straight for his kingdom the moment he was gone. As he had done with his own father.)

“If I have done any goodly dead, that shall be my memorial; but if not, then not all the statues in the world, the works of menial and worthless men, will avail” - King Agesilaus (on his deathbed, he was saying, if he has done something good, remember him for it, if not, then look at the statues of the people that did do good things. Don't focus on the bad.)

“Externals are not under my control; moral choice is under my control. Where am I to look for the good and the evil? Within me, in that which is my own” - Epictetus (You can not control the world that comes at you, you can only control how you handle it. Good and evil is how you react to things)

“There is one only good, namely, knowledge; and one only evil, namely, ignorance” - Socrates (If you know what you are doing, you can do good. If you ignore the facts in front of you, you are ultimately doing something evil)

“The essence of good and evil is a certain disposition of the will” - Epictetus (Good and Evil can be found in your choices.

“In the world of knowledge, the essential form of good is the limit of our inquiries, and can barely be perceived. However, when perceived, we cannot help concluding that it is in every case the source of all that is bright and beautiful- in the visible world giving birth to light and its master, and in the intellectual world dispensing, immediately and with full authority, truth and reason- and that whosoever would act wisely, either in private or in public, must set this form of good before his eyes” - Socrates (The amount of good you can do is limited by how much you allow yourself to learn. And once you ask enough questions, you will find the beauty in the world)

“No one who errs unwillingly is evil” - Sophocles (A good example is a soldier, he is only carrying out orders, he is not doing something he would normally do)

“Nothing is sufficient for the person who finds sufficient too little” - Epicurus (If you are always looking for something better, you will never truly be happy)

“In the case of base desires few people go wrong and only in one way, in the direction of too much” - Aristotle (Everyone has the same basic wants. Don't go overboard trying to get them and once you do)

“Luxury and avarice have similar results” - Pythagoras (Extreme greed is basically no different from a desire for luxury)

“The hope of dishonest profit is the beginning of loss” - Menander (Getting money by cheating is the best way to lose your money)

“Prefer honest poverty to unjust wealth; for justice is better than riches in that riches profit us only while we live, while justice provides us glory, even after we are dead; and while riches are shared by bad men, justice is a thing in which the wicked can have no part” - Isocrates (If you are a just person, your family and posterity will prosper from it, while if you steal for what you have, you will die hated but rich)

“In a rich mans house there is no place to spit but his face” - Diogenes (While a rich man might think it is worthy of a poor mans items to receive disrespect, it is actually the actions of the rich man which deserve disrespect)

“Character is simply habit long continued” - Plutarch (Character is defined by what you continue to do)

“It is a matter of no little importance what sort of habits we form from the earliest age- it makes a vast difference, or rather all the difference in the world” - Aristotle (People will recognize the things you do over and over as you grow up)

“To do the same thing over and over again is not only boredom: it is to be controlled by, rather than controlling, what you do” - Heraclitus (Basically like the one rap song says “Too much of anything makes you an addict” )

“If you want to do something, make a habit of it; if you want not to do something, then refrain from doing it, and accustom yourself to something else instead” - Epictetus (If you don't like your habits, then work to change them)

“How does a person who cannot tame his desires differ from the most ignorant beast?” - Xenophon (If you cannot control yourself, you are no better than an animal, and we could actually argue that most animals are already better people than most people)

“The moral virtues are produced in us neither by nature nor against nature. Nature prepares in us the ground for their reception, but their complete formation is the product of habit” - Aristotle (Humans are the ones who create virtue, nature simply presents us with opportunity)

“What reinforcement, then, is it possible to find with which to oppose habit? Why, the contrary habit” - Epictetus (Habits can be beaten with new habits)

“We are more sensible of what is done against custom than against nature” - Plutarch (We recognize crimes against man better than we recognize our own crimes against nature)

“If you had any knowledge of the noble things of life, you would refrain from coveting others' possessions, but for me to die for Greece is better than to be the sole ruler over the people of my race” - King Leonidas (This was his answer when Xerxes came to Sparta and asked for free passage, and said that in return he would make Leonidas the king of Greece once he defeated them)

“In meat and drink and sleep and sex, all creatures alike seem to take pleasure; but love of honor is rooted neither in the brute beasts nor in every human being” - Xenophon (Love of honor is something that is very rare among the creatures of Earth, but some humans possess it)

“When a man gives way to pleasure contrary to the counsel and commendation of the lawgiver, he is by no means conferring honor on his soul, but rather dishonor, by loading it with woes and remorse” - Plato (If you seek pleasure when you shouldn't, you are actually dishonoring yourself)

“Athenians excel all other not so much in singing or in statue or in strength, as in love of honor, which is the strongest incentive to deeds of honor and renown” - Xenophon (Working for honor is the best way to find honor)

“The tyranny imposed on the soul by anger, or fear, or lust, or pain, or envy, or desire, I generally call injustice” - Plato (He is basically giving some of his definitions of injustice)

“Don't appear just; be just” - Aeschylus (Don't try to look like you are being your best, be your best and do good things)

“It is the way that we behave in our dealings with other people that makes us just or unjust, and the way that we behave in the face of danger, accustoming ourselves to be timid or confident, that makes us brave or cowardly” - Aristotle (You might think you are a good or brave person, but how do you really behave when tested?)

“The duty of the virtuous men is to serve justice and to always, in every occasion, punish evil ones” - Euripides (If you want to be a “good” person, you need to strive for equality and punish evil)

“If you expect to stop denunciation of your wrong way of life by putting people to death, there is something amiss with your reasoning. This way of escape is neither possible nor credible; the best and easiest way is to not stop the mouths of others, but to make yourselves as well-behaved as possible” - Socrates (If you plan on stopping people from hearing about your bad deeds, by covering them up with more bad deeds, then you will fail. The best way to cover up bad deeds, is to act as good as possible)

“Injustice is an act that disregards all laws” - Euripides (Treating some one like they are lower than you is the worst crime)

“the question what rules of conduct should govern the relation between husband and wife, and generally between friend and friend, seems to be ultimately a question of justice” - Aristotle (Everyone wants to be treated like equals)

“The worst case of injustice is for someone to believe he is just while he is not” - Plato (basically the same as injustice being ignorance. If you don't look deep enough into the situation to find out if you are the bad guy, then you probably are)

“When you act justly, you have the gods as allies” - Menander (When you treat other people well, you will have good standing and good things will happen)

“In the state where court cases and great injustices abound, citizens will never become friends” - Plato (In a country where people are suing each other all the time, nothing will ever stabilize and people cannot trust each other)

“A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true” - Plato (If you base your values on the way you personally and directly feel about something, then you cannot be fair and are probably wrong)

“If you have done terrible things, you must endure terrible things; for thus the sacred light of injustice burns bright” - Sophocles (Basically Karma. Do bad things, get bad things done to you)

“Where injustice doesn't exist, citizens are philanthropists” - Menander (Basically being said backwards. If everyone is a philanthropist, injustice cannot exist. Meaning, if everyone wants to help people, how can anyone be wronged?)

“Unjust living is not only more shameful and wicked than righteous living, but also more unpleasant for those engaged in it” - Plato (Living in a state of inequality with others, even when at the top, is usually unpleasant)

“The only time an unjust man will scream against injustice is when he is afraid someone will practice it against him” - Plato (Rich and bad people don't care about a problem until the problem has brought itself to their doorstep)

“The unjust will never be able to create something in unison” - Plato (Even when unjust people build an organization, the people within it are secretly working against one another)

“Justice turns the scale, bringing to some learning through suffering” - Aeschylus (Justice brings fairness to a world where brute force ruled before)

“There is a point beyond, where even justice becomes unjust” - Sophocles (Everyone is the bad guy from someone or somethings perspective)

“It is preferable to be wronged than to wrong” - Socrates (In the long run it is better to be a victim than to create them)

“Be brave, justice always prevails” - Euripides (As long as you have thoroughly looked through everything and found yourself to be in the right, you have nothing to worry about)

“All souls are immortal, but the souls of the virtuous are both immortal and divine” - Socrates (Your soul will live on forever, but if you are a good person, your name will live on forever as well)

“The manner by which the masses can see the beauty of justice is to teach them, by simple means, the result of injustice” - Euripides (The best way to learn what injustice does, is to see what injustice does)

“An unjust deed doesn't escape the gods attention” - Plato (doing bad things will come back to haunt you)

“What the judge does is to restore equality” - Aristotle (A judges job is to make sure that no one is treated any better than any other person, for any reason)

“An army of deer led by a lion is more to be feared than an army of lions led by a deer” - Philip II (If you are a brave and charismatic leader, you can get more done than any leader who is timid)

“There is no greater proof of the abilities of a general than to investigate, with utmost care, into the character and natural abilities of his opponent” - Polybius (If you put yourself up to easy tasks, you don't really know if you are any good at anything)

“Be slow in action and when you act be steady” - Bias of Priene (Do not act rash in the heat of a situation, and when if you act later make sure you know what you are doing)

“The noble part of the soul, not the illogical, must lead the soul” - Aristotle (Do what you think is noble, not what you think needs to be done just because you think it needs to be done)

“A good general not only sees a way to victory, he knows when victory is impossible” - Polybius (You have to know your limitations)

“What a great statesman must be most anxious to produce is a certain moral character in his fellow citizens, namely a disposition to virtue and the performance of virtuous actions” - Aristotle (A good politician should want to make people better)

“On him who wields power gently, the gods look favorably from afar” - Aeschylus (Having power and not using it is the best way to prove your virtue)

“A good general not only sees a way to victory, he knows when victory is impossible” - Polybius (You have to know your limitations)

“What a great statesman must be most anxious to produce is a certain moral character in his fellow citizens, namely a disposition to virtue and the performance of virtuous actions” - Aristotle (A good politician should want to make people better)

“On him who wields power gently, the gods look favorably from afar” - Aeschylus (Having power and not using it is the best way to prove your virtue)

“He who is to be a good ruler must have first been ruled” - Aristotle (The best king is one who knows what it is like to be a peasant)

“A monarch, when he decides to change the moral habits of a state, needs no great efforts or vast length of time, but what he does need is to lead the way himself first along the desired path, whether it be to urge the citizens towards virtue's practices or the contrary; by his personal example he should first trace out the right lines, giving praise and honor to these things, blame to those, and degrading the disobedient according to their several deeds” - Plato (If you want to change the social structure, you must first be the change you wish to see)

“He who desires a shameful act, will carry it out first chance he gets” - Cleanthes (If you give a dirtbag a chance to do something bad, he will)

“External gods, being like a collection of tools each useful for some purpose, have a limit: one can have too many of them, and that is bound to be of no benefit, or even a positive injury, to their possessors” - Aristotle (Live within your means, and only keep a collection of things you NEED )

“Know not to revere human things too much” - Aeschylus (Material possessions don't mean as much as you think… Try to store up things you can take with you when you die, or that other people can keep to remember you when you die)

“To each man there comes just so much happiness as he has of virtue and of practical wisdom, and preforms actions dependent thereon. God himself is an indication of the truth of this. He is blessed and happy not on account of any of the external goods but because of himself and what he is by his own nature” - Aristotle (If you look at god, he is not happy because of what he owns. He is happy because of what he has created. If you do not attempt to live with wisdom and virtue, your happiness will be limited)

“How many things there are which I do not need!” - Socrates (At an ancient auction. Basically saying that people are wasting their time and money buying too many things)

“It is not by means of external goods that men acquire to keep the virtues, but the other way around” - Aristotle (People with money will pretend to be good people so that they can keep their money)

“Nothing in excess” - Thales of Miletus (Don't buy too much of anything)

“Profligacy means choosing harmful and base pleasures and enjoyments, and thinking that the happiest people are those who pass their lives in pleasures of that kind, and being fond of laughter and mockery and jokes and levity in words and deeds. Profligacy is accomplished by disorder, shamelessness, irregularity, luxury, slackness, carelessness, negligence, remissness” -Aristotle (It is not good to try to entertain yourself at all times, that is not the happiest people. And hurting other people for fun is really creating a behavior in you that is shameless, irregular, greedy, lazy, careless and negligent)

“Everyone enjoys tasty food and wine and sex in some degree, but not everyone to the right degree” - Aristotle (Everyone likes good things. But some people go overboard)

“One must choose in all things a mean just and good” - Pythagoras (Even if you feel as if you are being forced to do something, try to do it the right and good way, the way that benefits the most people and pushes for equality)

“Do not spend in excess like one who is careless of what is good, nor be miserly; the mean is best in every case” - Pythagoras (Don't spend your money like it is endless, and don't hold onto it like a old grouch)

“Contempt of pleasure…” - King Agesilaus (This was his answer when he was asked what good his laws had done for sparta. What it means is, they did not seek pleasure like most people, and in that they found strength above others)

“Even if you are all alone speak and do no evil and learn to be first ashamed of your own self and then of what others might say of you” - Democritus (Have integrity, learn to laugh at yourself, and make sure you have a conscience)

“You will be respected by everyone if you first start respecting yourself” - Mousonios (If you can't believe in yourself, who can?)

“Conceit is a trait of an immoral person while modesty of a serious one” - Filo (If you are conceded, people will think you are a bad person. If you are modest, people will take you seriously)

“Among all human beings, first respect yourself” - Pythagoras (Don't think of other people as better than you, we are all people)

“In you conversation avoid making mention at great length and excessively of your own deeds and dangers, because it is not as pleasant for others to hear about your adventures, as it is for you to call to mind your own dangers” - Epictetus (You have to have topics to discuss besides yourself and your life)

“Wherever there is fear there exists respect” - Plutarch (Is someone is afraid, the will respect the person they are afraid of. But that doesn't mean they are bound to that person. This quote kinda reminds me of a joke, Q: What do you call an 800 lb Gorilla? A: Sir.)

“In all things resolve to act as though the whole world would see what you do; for even if you conceal your deeds for the moment, later you will be found out. But most of all will you have the respect of men, if you are seen to avoid doing things which you would blame others for doing” - Isocrates (If you feel like you will have to blame someone else for something you are doing, then you shouldn't even do it, because you are playing a losing game)

“Verily nature has… given me a sense of shame, and frequently blush, when I feel that I am saying something disgraceful. It is this emotion which does not allow me to lay down pleasure as the good and end of life” - Epictetus (If pleasure is the goal of life, then why do we have pride to keep?)

“The greatest treasure you can leave their children is a sense of modesty and the advice to follow virtuous persons” - Theognis (To be a good parent, you don't need to be smart. Just make sure your kids don't boast about themselves, and make sure they know of good role models instead of just what is presented to them by TV)

“Avoid raising a laugh, for this is a kind of behavior that slips easily into vulgarity, and at the same time is calculated to lessen the respect with which your neighbors have for you” - Epictetus (If you are always making fun of people, and laughing at people then people aren't going to respect you)

“Shame is not the emotion of a good man, if it is felt for doing bad actions, because such action ought not to be done (and it makes no difference, whether the things done are really shameful or are only thought to be so; they should not be done in either case); so the emotion ought not to be felt” - Aristotle (If you try not to get into situations that you will feel ashamed of, then you won't have to worry about feeling bad about yourself)

“It is dangerous… to lapse into foul language. When, therefore, anything of the sort occurs, if the occasion be suitable, go even so far as to reprove the person who has made such a lapse; if, however, the occasion does not arise, at all events show by keeping silence, and blushing, and frowning, that you are displeased by what has been said” - Epictetus (It is not good to use foul language in everything you say, as there exists people who won't even hear what you are saying, they will only hear cuss words and tell you to stop, even if you saying something that needs saying)

“Compared with your mother and father and all the rest of your ancestors your country is something that is far more precious, more venerable, more sacred, and held in greater honor both among gods and among all reasonable men” - Plato (You country, in some respects, is more important to you than your family, whether you like it or not. Good or bad. It's there, and it's important)

“Without a sign his sword the brave man draws, and asks no omen but his countries cause” - Homer (A brave man pulls out his weapon without a second thought, and the only reason and support he needs is his countries good will)

“If your country leads you out to war, to be wounded or killed, you must comply, and it is just that this should be so- you must not give or retreat or abandon your position” - Plato (If you take an oath or make a promise, stick by it)

“What a fine thing it is to refuse to sell your country!” - Demosthenes (Some things are more important than money)

“Do not put your work off until tomorrow and the day after; for a sluggish worker does not fill his barn, nor one who puts off his work: industry makes work go well, but a man who puts off work is always at hand-grips with ruin” - Hesiod (Putting off work just makes you more likely to fail)

“For just as poets love their own works, and fathers their own children, in the same way those who have created a fortune value their money, not merely for its uses, like other persons, but because it is their own production. This makes them moreover disagreeable companions, because they will praise nothing but riches” - Plato (People who worry about nothing but money are no good, because all they worry about is money)

“The cause of all sins in every case lies in the person's excessive love of self” - Plato (People who do lie and do other bad things all the time usually don't care about anyone but themselves)

“Know thyself” - Oracle of Apollo at Delphi (Know what you like, and what you are capable of, good and bad)

“The examined life is not worth living” - Socrates (If you are not paying attention to how you live your life and what goes on around you, then why are you alive?)

“It is the part of the uneducated person to blame others where he himself fares ill; to blame himself is the part of one whose education has begun; to blame neither another nor his own self is the part of one whose education is already complete” - Epictetus (If you are stupid, you blame people who you think understand it. If you have begun to learn about things, you blame yourself. But in the end, you realize that the human race is just not perfect)

“To win over your bad self is the grandest and foremost of victories” - Plato (To be able to keep yourself from indulging in desires is the highest proof of your strength of will)

“To deceive yourself and believe that which you don't know to, indeed, know is borderline madness” - Socrates (If you believe something that you don't understand, then you are basically crazy)

“Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom” - Aristotle (Trying to understand who you are, and why you are what you are is the best way to start to learn things about the world)

“Getting to know yourself is extremely difficult” - Thales of Miletus (The only way to explain this is with an extreme example. How do you know if you enjoy killing people until you have killed someone?)

“I investigate not myths but myself, to know whether I am a monster more complicated and more furious than Typhon or a gentler simpler creature, to whom a divine and quiet lot is given by nature” - Socrates (Try to figure out if you are the bad guy, and where that is going to get you)

“Don't attempt to heal others when you yourself are full of wounds” - Euripides (Pay attention to your own problems and your own families problems, as that is usually the best way to help other people as well)

“Generally, we're all wise when advising others but we fail to see that we also err” - Socrates (It's easy to see the flaws of others, but do you notice your own flaws?)

“Learn what it is to be human and you will be a better human” - Antiphanes (If you learn about cultures outside of your own, you will have a better perspective on how you are affecting people)

“You will become a teacher of yourself when for the same things that you blame others, you also blame yourself” - Diogenes (If you lay in judgement of others, you must make sure to lay in judgement of yourself)

“Self-knowledge is observation of your actions and knowing the right thing to do at any given moment” - Meanader (You need to understand the thing you do, and be better at doing them by not just going through the actions)

“I am certainly wiser than this man. It is only too likely that neither of us has any knowledge to boast of; but he thinks that he knows something which he does not know, whereas I am quite conscious of my ignorance. At any rate it seems like I am wiser than he is to this small extent, that I do not think that I know what I do not know” - Socrates (You have to know what you can and can't do, and you shouldn't get yourself into things that you can't handle)

Aristotle (384-322 BC)

Aristotle was born in Stagira which lies on the Greek border of Macedonia. His mother's name was Phaestis and she was from a family of physicians. His father, Nicomachus, was the head physician, and served the king of Macedonia directly.

At the age of 17 Aristotle was sent to Athens, there he studied in the Academy for 20+ years which was run by Plato at the time Aristotle came, but he had no plans to remain a student of Plato, he was only there to learn. After Plato died he spent 4 years on the islands of Assos and Lesbos (outside of Athens, also “the island of Lesbos” is where the word “Lesbian” comes from) studying animals.

Around 343 BC, Aristotle was asked to come to Macedonia by King Philip II to tutor his son Alexander (who would later become known as Alexander the Great). When Alexander became king in 350 BC, Aristotle returned to Athens to start Lyceum, which was a direct competitor of the Academy, working to educate the masses, and grab the greatest minds to fill their halls. Because Aristotle liked to walk around during his philosophy lectures (not just pacing, but literally go on walks), the word for his type of Philosophy is literally named after the Greek word for “Walking around” which is “Peripatetikos”. Rumor has it, that as Alexander went East and conquered much of the known world, he would send back plants, animals and minerals for Aristotles school. Whether or not that is true, the school thrived because people knew that the man who had educated the Great Alexander was running it. But when Alexander died, Athenians rampaged and protested anything having to do with Alexander. Aristotle ran from Athens, so that he would not be killed like Socrates was. He died about a year later, some people say it was in the ocean doing studies on the animals that live there.

In observing the world, Aristotle saw 4 main causes responsible for making something what it is: Material, Formal, Efficient & Final

The material cause is what something is made of, the formal cause is what it was planned to be, it's efficient cause is its connection to the person who made it, and the final cause is what it is used for. The final cause is considered most important, because really it defines all the others. If there was no “final cause” the worker would have no goal, and the materials would not come together, etc. So basically, Aristotle says that all things can be properly examined by looking at its “final cause”. So something like “the ends justify the means”, but not with such a doom tone. This is the “Teleological” way of looking at the world. By observing humans, Aristotle decided that whatever a person strives for is their “final cause”, so you are only as useful as what you hope to accomplish. And to him, the highest goal a human could achieve was happiness. And to him happiness meant something more along the lines of our modern understanding of valor, or maybe pride.

Aristotle's “Categories”

1. When things have only a name in common and the definition of being which corresponds to the name is different, they are called Homonymous. Thus, for example, both a man and picture of a man are animals. These only have a name in common and the definition of being which corresponds to the name is different; for if one is to say what being an animal is for each of them, one will give two distinct definitions (so “Animal” can be used either to describe the man himself, or the man in the picture. Like how a Hieroglyph can mean something, it isn't REALLY that thing, but it is). When things have the name in common and the definition of which being corresponds to the name is the same, they are called Synonymous. Thus, for example, both a man and ox are animals. Each of these is called by a common name, “animal”, and the definition of being is also the same; for if one is to give that definition to each- what being an animal means for each of them- one will give the same definition. (So basically, even though a man and an ox are both animals, the hieroglyph would be different for each one). When things get their name from something, with a difference of ending, they are called Paranonymous. Thus, for example, the grammarian gets his name from the grammar, the brave get theirs from bravery).

2. Of things that are said, some involve combination while others are said without combination. Example of those involving combination are “man runs”, man wins”; and of those without combination “man”, “ox”, “runs”, “wins”. (Sometimes 2 sentences can go together and mean something together, while sometimes you say one thing after the other, and they have nothing to do with each other). Of things there are: (a) some are said of subject but are not in any subject. (meaning sometimes you speak about something in terms of something, but it can be applied anywhere) (b) Some are in a subject but are not said of any subject. (in a subject meaning it cannot exist in speech without that subject) For example, the individual knowledge-of-grammar is in a subject, the soul, but is not said of any subject (Meaning Grammar is used in everything, but it is not the subject of everything, unless you are a Grammar Nazi); © Some are both said of a subject and in a subject. For example, knowledge is in a subject, the soul, and is also said of a subject. (Meaning knowledge is both needed to form the subject, and is needed when actively pursuing or activating the subject, but knowledge can be applied to any area, and in many ways) (d) Some are neither in a subject nor said of a subject, for example, the individual man or individual horse- for nothing of this sort is either in a subject or said of a subject. Things that are individual numerically one are, without exception, not said of any subject, but there is nothing to prevent some of them from being in subject- the individual knowledge-of-grammar is one of the things in a subject. (Meaning, in most occasions when something is said about a person it's just “This guy said…” not “There was a blue eyed man named carl, and he had fat lips that he used to say to a shorter man who was naked…” so when you don't talk about the guy, he is important in that it did happen to him, but it could have been any “man” and the fact that it is a man is not the subject)

3. Whenever one thing is predicted of another as of a subject, all things said of what is predicted will be said of the subject also. For example, man is predicated of the individual man, and animal of man; so animal will be predicated of the individual and also- for the individual man is both a man and an animal. (If I assume something about you because of something I have seen before, then I will assume that you have ALL the qualities of the thing I saw before, even if you don't do those things. So, if I have been attacked by a bear, there is no way I'm going near a bear, no matter how nice you say it is) The differentiae of genera which are different and not subordinate one to the other are themselves different in kind. For example, animal and knowledge: footed, winged, aquatic, two-footed, are differentiae of animal, but none of these is a differentia of knowledge; one sort of knowledge does not differ from another by being two-footed. However, there is nothing to prevent genera subordinate one to the other form having the same differentia. For the higher are predicated of the genera below them, so that all differentiae of the predicted genus will be differentiae of the subject also. (Because you think of 2 footed creatures as more intelligent, such as monkeys and people, you automatically assume that anything you meet on four legs is stupid)

4. Of things said without any combination, each signifies either substance or quantity or qualification or a relative or where or when or being-in-a-position or having or doing or being-affected. To give a rough idea, examples of substance are man, horse; of quantity: four-foot, five-foot; of qualification: white, grammatical; of a relative: double, half, larger; of where: in Lyceum, in the market-place; of when: yesterday, last-year; of being-in-a-position: is-lying, is-sitting; of having: has-shoes-on, has-armor-on; of doing: cutting, burning; of being-affected: being-cut, being-burned. None of the above is just said by itself in any affirmation, but by the combination of these with one another an affirmation is produced. For every affirmation it seems, either true or false; but of things said without any combination none is either true or false. (Saying something alone means nothing, but when you combine words in certain ways, they have a different meaning than they did before because of the impact of the words around them. Each has its own, and together they support each other to become a fuller meaning)

5. A Substance- that which is called a substance most strictly, primarily, and most of all- is that which is neither said of a subject not in a subject. e.g., the individual man or the individual horse. The species in which the things primarily called substance are, all called secondary substances, as also are the genera of these species. For example the individual man belongs in a species, man, and animal is a genus of the species; so these- both man and animal- are called secondary substances. (If the subject is you, your personality, your history. The Substance is how we can define you, or the categories you fall in. You are a man, you are an animal, you are an Earthling)

It is clear from what has been said that if something is said of a subject, both its name and its definition are necessarily predicated of the subject. For example, man is said of a subject, the individual name is of course predicated, since you will be predicating of the individual man, and also the definition of man will be predicated of the individual man, since the individual man is also a man. Thus, both are not in a subject, in most cases neither the name nor the definition is predicated of the subject. In some cases there is nothing to prevent the name from being predicated of the subject, but it is impossible for the definition to be predicated. For example, white or black, which is in the subject (the body), is predicated of the subject; for a body is called white or black. But the definition of white or black will never be the predicate of the body. (Ok, so if I say your name, automatically the ideas that come to someone's mind are the things they know about you, even if I have never met you. And if they know you are a man, they will also assume you are like all other men. But this is not always right. In the example, some skin is white, and I might look at you and see white skin. But just because your skin is white, does not mean you are defined by the color white. You are not the same as a white crayon, or a white bird, etc. So even though I know that about you, I can not begin to assume things based on it, but some people do)

All the other things are either said of the primary substance as subjects or in them as subjects. This is clear from an examination of cases. For example, animal is predicted of man and therefore also of the individual man; for were it predicated of none of the individual men it would not be predicated of man at all. Again, colour is in body and therefore also in an individual body; for were it not in some individual body it would not be in body at all. Thus all the other things are either said of the primary substances as subjects or in them as subjects. So if the primary substances did not exist it would be impossible for any of the other things to exist. (Basically, there is no such thing as white skin is unless you have another type of skin to compare it to)

Of the secondary substances the species is more a substance than the genus, since it is nearer to the primary substances. For if one is to say of the primary substance what it is, it will be more informative and apt to give the species than the genus. For example, it would be more informative and apt to give the species than the genus. For example, it would be more informative to say of the individual man that he is a man than that he is an animal (since the one is more distinctive of the individual man while the other is more general); and more informative to say of the individual tree that it is a tree than that it is a plant. Further, it is because the primary substances are subjects for all the other things and all the other things are predicated of them or are in them, that they are called substances most of all. But as the primary substances stand to the other things, so the species stands to the genus: the species is a subject for the genus, for the genera are predicated of the species but the species are not predicated reciprocally of the genera. (This is the same as “a square is a rectangle but a rectangle is not a square”… Squares have 4 equal sides, rectangles have 2 sets of 2 equal sides. So Squares fit the description of rectangles, but rectangles don't fit the description of squares. This is also how fruits and vegetables work. Anything that comes from a plant is a vegetable, but the part with seeds (the ovaries) are called “fruit” ) Hence for this reason too the species is more a substance than the genus. But of the species themselves- those which are not genera- one is not more a substance than the other: it is no more apt to say of the individual horse that is a horse. And similarly of the primary substances one is no more a substance than another: the individual man is no more a substance than the individual ox (If you figure out what kind of animal something is, and not just the group of animals it falls in, like if you figure out your dog is a Chihuahua, you now know more about it than you would have if you were just told “It's a Canine” )

It is reasonable that, after the primary substances, their species and genera should be the only other things called (secondary) substances. For only they, of things predicated, reveal the primary substances. For if one is to say of the individual man what he is, it will be in place to give the species or the genus (though more informative to give man than animal); but to give any of the other things would be out of place- for example, to say “white” or “runs” or anything like that. So it is reasonable that these should be the only other things called substances. Further, it is because the primary substances are subject for everything else that they are called substances most strictly. But as the primary substances stand to everything else, so the species and genera of the primary substances stand to everything else, so the species and genera of the primary substances stand to all the rest: all the rest are predicated of these. For if you will call the individual man grammatical; and similarly in other cases. (White and Running are not something that can be solidly called “what you are”, but “man” or “animal” are things we can say for sure. So “Man” and “animal” are just as real as the individual “You” )

It is a characteristic common to every substance not to be in a subject. For a primary substance is neither said of a subject nor in a subject. And as for secondary substances, it is obvious at once that they are not in a subject. For man is said of the individual man as subject but us not in a subject. For man is said of the individual man as subject is not in a subject: man is not truly within the individual man, it is only within the subject of the individual man. Similarly, animal also is said of the individual man as subject but animal is not in the individual man. Further, while there is nothing to prevent the name of what is in a subject from being sometimes predicated of the subject, it is impossible for the definition to be predicated. But the definition of the secondary substances, as well as the name, is predicated of the subject: you will predicate the definition of man of the individual man, and also that of animal. No substance, therefore, in a subject. (Because man is an animal, you can assume that a man will be something like a man as well as something like an animal. But this doesn't mean that animal is in man, or that man is in man. They are just words, they do not make the man what he is) This is not, however, peculiar to substance; the deifferentia also is not in a subject. For footed and two-footed are said of man as subject but are not in a subject; neither two-footed nor footed is in man. Moreover, the definition of the differentia is predicate of that of which the differentia is said. For example, if footed is said of man the definition of footed will also be predicated of man; for man is footed. (We call things what they are) We need not be disturbed by any fear that we may be forced to say that the parts of a substance, being in a subject (the whole substance), are not substances. For when we spoke of things in a subject we did not mean things belonging in something as parts.

The Art of War

“War is a matter of vital importance to the state (still true, no matter who you are, I guess unless you are Swiss); The province of life or death; the road to survival or ruin. It is mandatory that it be thoroughly studied.”

Moral influence Weather Terrain Command Doctrine

These things should be considered before you even consider which, when, or what number of men should be sent.

And it is important to remember that once in the field, the General/Leader of the group is the key to making sure these things are considered throughout.

“In Happiness at overcoming difficulties, people forget the danger of death”

If you treat you army right, and follow a righteous path, your men will be better more loyal warriors.

Know your terrain. It can and WILL mean everything.

“If a general is not courageous he will be unable to conquer doubts, or make great plans”

If you do not believe in yourself and your cause, then you will probably not accomplish it.

Doctrine and Command were mentioned before. The general is in command once the army leaves, but that is not the only facet of command and doctrine. That commander needs to make sure that the officers within his forces are commanders on par with himself, he must maintain control of the individual units while overseeing the army as a whole, he must maintain routes of supply and information (what if the war ends and no one knows? Bad leadership), as well as making sure that the army has all the tools and other things it might need.

You should have your army well tuned. Make sure your men want to be in the fight, make sure your men have everything they need.

If your men are so prepared that they are excited to go into battle, and angry to be called back, then you have an advantage.

Men who have practice will also preform better in the heat of action than those who do not. General and Soldier alike.

All warfare is based o deception. When you are doing things, make it look like you are not doing things. When you are not doing anything, make it look like you are fortifying yourself and preparing. If an enemy is focused on what you are not doing, you have an advantage.

Offer the enemy bait, and always make it look like you are unorganized before striking.

Make your enemy feel as if good leadership is farther from your army than it really is, and make your enemy feel like your army is in their face when it is not.

If your enemy is prone to anger, you can dismantle their strategy.

Pretend you are inferior, so that your enemy feels smarter and better than you, and will underestimate you.

Keep your enemy under strain, do not give him time to develop new strategies and plans, or regroup his forces.

Befriend your enemies allies, and attempt to make them your allies. Then you can plot against your enemy with his allies.

Do the unexpected. If your enemy thinks that you would never be there that day. Be there, they will be off guard. And catching someone off guard gives you the upper hand.

Calculate the outcome. The more you know what can happen, the more prepared you will be and the more successful you will be.

Victory is the main objective of war, so do not make it too far off. And if the total victory is inevitably far off, make sure to celebrate small tactical victories.

If you plan to wage a full scale campaign, the state treasury will not be enough and money will have to be earned along the way, and by individual generals.

When you have waged a long campaign and stretched individuals too far, people will take advantage of the situation to strike.

Any plan must be delivered as quickly as possible. To delay action is to allow enemy preparation or mimicry.

War must end. If war does not end, then it is more than war. Worse than war. Something is wrong with you, and you have been consumed.

If you don't understand these dangers, you will not be a good leader, and men will not respect you after time.

If you know what you are doing, you will not need reserve troops to take your men's places when they die. A good general can do as much with one generation of soldiers, as a bad general can with 2 or 3.

Bring equipment from home, feed yourself on the enemies land and stores.

The reason a country gets tired in war, is because it must send its resources away. And with that, send people long distances to transport those resources. An example of how this makes complete sense is the way America operates today, we no longer need victory gardens, or marketing campaigns for military bonds. Now we already have the bombs ready, and the army just feeds itself by stealing oil from the Middle East. Desert Storm and the War in Iraq are both proof of that. America changed it's strategy after Vietnam. In the past the strategy was “Identify the enemy, Establish a Base in Enemy Territory, Destroy the Enemy”. But in Vietnam, no one knew who was the good guys and who was the bad guys, and both sides had guerrillas that seemed violent to American's who didn't know the difference. Sorry to go so far into modern stuff right in the middle of an ancient topic.

When you bring a large group of people on a campaign, you will have to pay more for stuff, as people will want to capitalize on your numbers. Supply and Demand.

If the war goes on to long, the soldiers families will become restless and impoverished.

Bibliography

The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices from Imhotep to Akhenaten by Molefi Kete Asante

Hannibal by Harold Lamb

Alexander the Great by Paul Carteledge

The Teachings of Ptahhotep: Oldest Book in the World by Asa G. Hilliard III, Larry Williams and Nia Damali

The Beginning of all Wisdom by Steven Stravropoulos


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