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Cause

Treatment

Sugar intake must be minimized, especially high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Safe sugar substitutes include xylitol and stevia. Aspartame is a dangerous sugar substitute, that should never be eaten.

brain stimulation http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070627161810.htm

Scoring
For each treatment below, the effectiveness is rated on a scale of 0 to 10. The effectiveness rating is a combination of the claimed power of the treatment with the amount of evidence for that claim. The availability is rated on a scale of 0 to 5. The easier the treatment is to obtain, the higher the availability rating, the more expensive the treatment, the lower the availability rating. If the treatment is a common food the availability rating will be 5, if the treatment can only be obtained by mail order, the rating will be lower, if the treatment is only available by prescription the rating lower still. The safety is rated on a scale of 0 to 5. If the treatment is a common safe food the safety rating will be 5, if the treatment has mild adverse effects the rating will be lower, if the treatment requires injections or monitoring in a clinic to prevent the possibility of severe adverse effects the rating will be lower still.

The scores are totaled, and the treatments are ranked in descending order of the total score, then alphabetically.

Coconut Oil

Coconut oil contains medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), which are metabolized into the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate, which protects neurons and is converted to energy. The coconut oil must be unhydrogenated and free of trans fats, because hydrogenated oil is harmful. The best commercial coconut oil is cold pressed organic virgin coconut oil, because virgin coconut oil is extracted from fresh coconut flesh and retains more nutrients than regular coconut oil which is derived from the dried fruit. You can also get the full power of coconut oil by using homemade raw coconut cream or milk, or by pressing coconut pieces through a low speed juicer. The typical Alzheimer's disease treatment dose is about five tablespoons of coconut oil daily. Because taking coconut oil for the first time sometimes kills chronic infections, therefore producing a detox reaction, it is best to start with a tablespoon per day, and increase the dose to five tablespoons a day over a week.

Coconut oil is one of the world’s best sources of MCTs, 65% of coconut oil is composed of MCTs. The brain’s metabolism of MCTs creates the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate, which protects neurons and is converted to energy. As the body metabolizes ketone bodies, blood flow to the brain also increases. The Effects of Beta-hydroxybutyrate on Cognition in Memory Impaired Adults study took MCTs from coconut oil and put them into a drink that was given to Alzheimer’s patients while a control group took a placebo. They observed significant increases in levels of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) 90 minutes after treatment when cognitive tests were administered. Higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects.

Some infections, including herpes, and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause some cases of Alzheimer's disease. The medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFA) in coconut oil are potent antimicrobial agents, effective against fungi, viruses and many bacteria. The most effective fatty acids are caprylic acid (with 8 carbon atoms), capric acid (10 carbon atoms) and lauric acid (12 carbon). By fighting infections, coconut oil may cure some cases of Alzheimer's disease caused by infection.

Coconut oil also treats cardiovascular disease by increasing the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL), the good cholesterol, and by fighting infections, which could lead to atherosclerosis. Although coconut oil is predominately a saturated fat, it improves the cholesterol profile. Natural, nonhydrogenated coconut oil increases HDL, therefore reducing the risk of heart disease. There is outdated information still out there that all saturated fats, including coconut oil, are bad for the cholesterol profile. However, studies in the 1970s and afterwards have demonstrated that hypothesis to be false, and indeed that coconut oil is one the best oils for the cardiovascular system.

When taking coconut oil the first time, start with no more than a tablespoon per day, also have some vitamin C and molybdenum on hand to minimize the die off reaction if necessary. Coconut oil generally increases basic metabolic functions in the body; when applied topically the skin will produce more oil which can sometimes lead to skin problems, especially if the skin is not cleaned right before applying the oil.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 10
  • Availability: 5
  • Safety: 4

Links

Curcumin/Turmeric

Curcumin inhibits the formation of beta amyloid fibrils, and destabilizes beta amyloid plaques that have already formed. The typical treatment dose is 2 grams of dried powdered root per day, or 500 milligrams of curcumin powder three times a day.

Curcumin is the active ingredient of the Indian/Asian curry spice turmeric, curcumin is the principal curcuminoid in turmeric. India has one the lowest numbers of people suffering with in the world. Only 1% of Indians over 65 suffers from Alzheimer`s disease while for America the corresponding statistic is around 10%. Research found that consumption of curcumin reduces the chance of getting Alzheimer's disease. Researchers found that curcumin inhibited the formation of beta amyloid fibrils, and also destabilized beta amyloid plaques that had already formed. In Alzheimer’s disease, a condition known as gliosis can occur, characterized by the rapid proliferation of neuroglia. Curcumin inhibits neuroglial proliferation, with the degree of inhibition correlated directly with the curcumin concentration. Free radicals generated by beta amyloid, mitochondrial abnormalities in cells, inadequate energy supply, and inflammation, all damage the brain. Curcumin is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, and can prevent some of that damage.

The typical dose of 500 mg/day of curcumin powder is probably enough to treat Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, curcumin seems to work better at typical doses than at high doses. However, if the typical dose is tried and there is no improvement, than the effective dose can be increased by increasing the bioavailability by taking black pepper along with the curcumin. If there is still no improvement with the addition of black pepper, than Longvida can be taken, whose curcumin is extremely bioavailable. Longvida products include Phytosensia - Longvida RD, and Vitamin Research Products - Longvida RD.

Curcumin might increase the risk of bleeding and so may be inadvisable if you are taking anti-coagulants.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 10
  • Availability: 5
  • Safety: 4

Links

Carnosine

Carnosine, also called L-carnosine, protects neurons from free radicals and hypoxia. The treatment dose is 1,000 mg/day.

Glycation converts proteins in the body to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs), which create free radicals that damage eyes, skin, the circulatory system and the nervous system. Carnosine is the most effective anti-glycating substance. Studies have linked lead, mercury, and inappropriate concentration of zinc and copper in the brain to Alzheimer’s disease. Carnosine chelates metals, making it possible for the body to dispose them. Studies have found carnosine can reduce or prevent cell damage caused by beta amyloid, the protein found in Alzheimer’s patients. Carnosine is a potent antioxidant, reducing damage from free radicals produced by the oxidation of fats and sugars common in diabetics. By doing so, it also helps to prevent neuro degeneration. Carnosine has also been found to protect neurons from hypoxia damage, common in vascular dementia.

Carnosine is an amino acid compound found primarily in red meat. A red meat meal may provide 250 mg of carnosine, but this is quickly degraded in the body by the carnosinase enzyme, so it would not last long enough in the body to provide sustained protective effects. Supplementation with 1,000 mg/day of carnosine overwhelms the carnosinase enzyme, leading to high blood levels of this critical nutrient.

Carnosine products include Wellness Resources - Carnosine - 500 mg, and Life Extension, Super Carnosine - 500 mg.

Carnosine lowers blood sugar, so if combined with diabetes medication it may cause blood glucose levels to dip too low, therefore diabetics should pay extra care to their glucose levels when first taking carnosine.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 10
  • Availability: 3
  • Safety: 5

Links

Exercise

Exercise, especially strength training, improves cognition and reduces the risk of getting Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive exercises also help, but not as much as physical exercise. A study lead by Dr. Buchman followed 716 seniors with an average age of 82 for an average period of 41 months. The 10% least physically active seniors were 2.3 times as likely to develop Alzheimer's disease, compared to the 10% most active.

Alzheimer’s disease patients have a reduced level of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Exercise normalizes levels of CRF, which is beneficial to the brain, keeping the mental faculties sharp and aiding the survival of nerve cells. Exercise also helps to reduce depression rates among people with Alzheimer’s and helps protect against the side effects of physical deterioration such as falls and fractures.

People with the e4 variant of the APOE gene have a 15 times higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease than non-e4 carriers. E4 carriers also show symptoms of dementia in their late 60s, rather than in their early 80s, as non-e4 carriers do. Researchers at Washington University studied 201 people, 56 of which were e4 carriers. Overall, those who exercised more had slightly fewer amyloid plaques than those who didn’t. However, among the e4 carriers, those who exercised had dramatically fewer plaques than those who did not. The researchers concluded that a physically active lifestyle may allow e4 carriers to have the same brain amyloid levels as e4-negative individuals.

When exercising keep a fast-acting carbohydrate with you in case you feel faint from low blood glucose. Drink enough water to stay well hydrated while exercising, and have the right shoes for your activity. If possible exercise with a friend or in an area with lots of people, like a health club. Don't exercise outdoors on very hot or humid days because of the risk of heat exhaustion or heat stroke.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 10
  • Availability: 5
  • Safety: 3

Links

Vitamin D

Vitamin D improves the function of macrophages which clear beta amyloid. The vitamin D dose should be at least 4,000 IU/day (100 mcg/day). To get more protection, the dose can be increased to 8,000 IU/day, this is comfortably under the 10,000 IU/day that is the lower limit of risk, and the benefits are enormous. One IU of vitamin D is 0.025 mcg, alternately 1 mcg of vitamin D is 40 IU.

Beta amyloid can build up because of the metabolic processes of the brain. For good health, they have to be cleared, which is done by Type 1 and Type 2 macrophages. Vitamin D improves the function of both types of macrophages. A study published in the Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences found that the women who had less than 10 ng/ml of Vitamin D already had signs of significant cognitive decline. Women who had Vitamin D levels of less than 20ng/ml had a higher risk of cognitive decline. By comparison, the normal range is 30 ng/ml to 60 ng/ml, and high levels are associated with better health. A lack of vitamin D has been associated with increased inflammation and inflammation has been linked with dementia.

Vitamin D3 is naturally produced by the body, vitamin D2 is not. Only take vitamin D3, vitamin D2 is an inferior analogue whose potency is less than one third that of vitamin D3. Vitamin D2, ergocalciferol, is produced when ergosterol in a yeast extract is converted by ultraviolet light, it is never produced by the human body. Vitamin D3 is produced when 7-dehydro-cholesterol, a precursor molecule of cholesterol present in the skin, is converted by ultraviolet light. Vitamin D3 products include Bio Tech Pharmacal D3-50 - 50,000 IU, and Life Extension - Vitamin D3 - 5,000 IU.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 9
  • Availability: 4
  • Safety: 5

Links

Walnuts

Walnuts improve working memory. The average dose in the cardiovascular studies is about 40 grams/day (about 8 whole walnuts/day).

The Spanish Predimed study found that regular consumption of walnuts, but not of other nuts, was associated with better working memory. Walnuts provide antioxidants, and alpha linolenic acid (ALA). These nutrients protect brain cells from inflammation and oxidative damage. Research by Dr. Chauhan showed walnuts to have protective effects against oxidative stress and cell death caused by beta amyloidal protein. Walnuts also treat Alzheimer's disease indirectly by reducing cardiovascular risk factors, because any size stroke adds to the risk of dementia and probably hastens the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Walnuts help cardiovascular function by improving endothelial function, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), the good cholesterol, and decreasing low density lipoprotein (LDL), the bad cholesterol.

About 90% of the phenols in walnuts are found in the skin, including key phenolic acids, tannins, and flavonoids. Walnut skin is the whitish, sometimes waxy, sometimes flaky, outermost part of shelled walnuts. The skin may be slightly bitter, and for that reason some websites recommend removing it, but it has a lot of the health benefits, and if you can tolerate the taste it's best to keep it. Walnuts are loaded with gamma-tocopherol, a particularly beneficial form of vitamin E. Walnuts include a wide range of phytonutrients including quinone juglone, numerous tannins (especially ellagitannins, including tellimagrandins), and a wide variety of flavonoids, including the flavonol morin. Walnuts have high levels of manganese, and copper; they also have calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vanadium and zinc.

Other nuts also help with cardiovascular disease, but only walnuts have been found to help with Alzheimer's disease. Walnuts have the highest levels of antioxidants, brazil nuts and peanuts are in the second tier, and in the third tier are almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, and pistachios.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 8
  • Availability: 5
  • Safety: 5

Links

Silicon

Silicon protects the body by increasing the excretion of aluminum, which is linked to Alzheimer's disease. The typical supplementation dose is 2 bioavailable mg/day. However, typical bioavailable consumption is 11 bio mg/day, so the typical supplementation dose should be at least the same.

Aluminum is linked to Alzheimer’s disease and has no place in human metabolism. A study by Dr. Exley found that bioavailable silicon chelates aluminum, increasing the urinary excretion of aluminum. In another study, the silicon intake of 7,598 French women aged 75 years was analyzed. At the beginning, the amount of silica (silicon dioxide) each participant consumed in their drinking water was determined. Women with lower intakes of silica were found to perform worse on cognitive function tests, compared with women with higher intakes. About 20% of the participants were then followed for up to 7 years. During the follow-up period, women with lower intake of silica were at increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease; those who developed Alzheimer’s disease were nearly three times as likely to have a low silica intake from drinking water, defined as less than 4 mg/day.

Bioavailability measured in the "The comparative absorption of silicon.." study, based on urinary silicon excretion, was highest for monomethylsilanetriol (MMST) and alcohol-free beer at 64%, followed by green beans at 44%, orthosilicic acid (OSA) at 43%, choline stabilized orthosilicic acid (ChOSA) at 17%, bananas and magnesium trisilicate mixture British Pharmacopoeia (MTBP) at 4 % and colloidal silica (CS) at 1%. Bioavailability measured in the "Dietary silicon intake and absorption" study was highest for mineral waters at around 65%, followed by grains and grain products (rice, breakfast cereals, breads, and pasta) at 49%, green string beans and raisins at around 40% and the mean of all vegetables and fruit at 21%.

Bamboo extract is colloidal silica and so also has a low bioavailability. Because of the different bioavailabilities, concentrations and quanties, the price per bioavailable milligram varies widely. Because colloidal silica and bamboo extract have low bioavailabilities, they end up being more expensive per bioavailable milligram than organic silicon products and are therefore not recommended. Horsetail has some nicotine so it is also not recommended.

The two most popular supplement forms of organic silicon are MMST, and ChOSA. The Regenerative Nutrition - Organic Silicon - 2,500 mg costs 37 USD, has 2,500 mg of silicon in the form of MMST, gives 1,600 mg of bioavailable silicon, and costs 0.023 USD/bio mg. The Center for Holistic Medicine - Organic Silica Liquid - 500 mg costs 39 USD, has 500 mg of silicon in the form of MMST, gives 320 mg of bioavailable silicon, and costs 0.12 USD/bio mg. The Vitamin Shoppe - Biosil - 600 mg costs 24 USD, has 600 mg of silicon in the form ChOSA, gives 102 mg of bioavailable silicon, and costs 0.24 USD/bio mg. The Life Extension - Biosil - 600 mg costs 30 USD, has 600 mg of silicon in the form ChOSA, gives 102 mg of bioavailable silicon, and costs 0.29 USD/bio mg. The LuckyVitamin.com - Orgono Living Silica - 200 mg costs 50 USD, has 200 mg of silicon in the form of MMST, gives 128 mg of bioavailable silicon, and costs 0.39 USD/bio mg.

The food with the highest amount of bioavailable silicon is oat bran, with 24 mg of silicon/100 g, about 12 bio mg/100 g. However, it has mild adverse effects in people with gluten sensitivity. The gluten free foods with the highest amount of bioavailable silicon are green or French beans, with 8.7 mg of silicon/100 g, about 3.6 bio mg/kg.

An inexpensive way to get silicon is to take one tablespoon of food grade diatomaceous earth (DE) mixed in water each day, away from food. The diatomaceous earth must be food grade guaranteed to have less than 0.5% crystalline silica, not filter grade sometimes called pool grade, because filter grade diatomaceous earth destroys the digestive system and because breathing in dust from filter grade diatomaceous earth causes silicosis. Because there is a tiny amount of crystalline silica dust even in food grade diatomaceous earth, you must be careful not to breathe in dust from diatomaceous earth. To be really safe, you can pour water into the container of diatomaceous earth, to turn the powder to mud; once it is a mud, there is no dust, so no risk of silicosis. Then use that mud as you would use the powder, putting it into water or juice, and stirring it vigorously to mix it into the liquid. Because it starts out as a mud, rather than a powder, it takes more stirring to mix it into the liquid, however, the safety is worth the extra work. Besides providing silicon to the body, diatomaceous earth also cleanses the colon by abrading away deposits and biofilms. Food grade diatomaceous earth products include Earthworks Health - Diatomaceous Earth 4 - 2.5 lb. Gallon Jugs, More Than Alive - Bulk Herbs: Diatomaceous Earth - Food Grade Powder - 50 lb, and GardenHarvestSupply.com - Diatomaceous Earth Food Grade - 5 lb bag. Food grade diatomaceous earth can be also found at some pet food stores.

Another way to get silicon is through water. Some mineral waters have high concentrations of silicon, in general the harder the water, the higher the silicon content. Silicon rich mineral waters include Vitiblu - 44 mg/L, Fiji Water - 39 mg/L, and Spritzer - 32 mg/l. Silicon rich waters often list silica content rather than silicon content, in those cases to calculate how much silicon there is multiply the silica content by the molar mass of silicon over the molar mass of silica, 28 / 60 = 0.47. A way to make your own silicon water is to add a tablespoon full of food grade diatomaceous earth to four liters of water and allow the diatomaceous earth to settle to the bottom, which may take a few days initially. Then pour the water you intend to drink from the top of the container, being careful not to disturb the diatomaceous earth on the bottom. Refill the container with water, and allow it to settle out again. A tablespoon full of diatomaceous earth should last several years if it is not poured off in the water.

There are no known adverse effects from silicon rich water or organic silicon, the only problem is the cost. The choline in choline stabilized orthosilicic acid has some potential adverse effects, including increased body temperature, excessive sweating, increased salivation, nausea, upset stomach, diarrhea, decreased appetite, dizziness, hypotension and abnormal electrocardiogram results. Decreasing the amount of choline consumed will resolve these adverse effects.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 8
  • Availability: 3
  • Safety: 5

Links

Chromium

Chromium improves learning and recall in adults with memory decline. The treatment dose in the Cincinnati memory study was 1,000 mg/day. Only 0.5% to 2% of inorganic chromium is absorbed by the body. Chromium picolinate, and chromium polynicotinate, also known as niacin (vitamin B3) bound chromium or glucose tolerance factor (GTF), are well absorbed by the body and have been found effective in studies. Chromium polynicotinate is more bioavailable than chromium picolinate, probably at least twice as bioavailable, so the chromium polynicotinate dose can be smaller than the chromium picolinate dose. Overall, if someone suffers side effects from niacin, chromium picolinate is recommended, otherwise chromium polynicotinate is probably better.

Insulin dysfunction is linked to many chronic diseases, including Alzheimer`s disease. Chromium is a co-factor for insulin function, and helps control blood sugar. A research team from the University of Cincinnati gave 1,000 mg/day of chromium picolinate or a placebo to older adults with early memory decline. The adults taking chromium had improved learning, recall, and recognition memory skill. Also fMRI Scans of participants receiving chromium showed greater activation of the left frontal and left parietal cortices of the brain during the memory test. Animal studies have shown that chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate reduced the expression of Tau protein, which is involved in Alzheimer`s disease.

Chromium rich foods include brewer's yeast, ham, cheese, corned beef, split pees and spinach. For chromium consumption, brewer's yeast is highly recommended because it has 60 mcg of chromium/tablespoon. All other foods, even the next on the list ham with 26 mcg of chromium/100 g, don't have enough chromium to practically reach the treatment dose of very roughly 500 mcg/day of chromium polynicotinate, or 1,000 mcg/day of chromium picolinate. The other foods are better than nothing, but realistically brewer's yeast is the only one that will make a significant difference, and because the chromium requirement is so high, even brewer's yeast will probably be insufficient. Also, brewer's yeast has a bitter taste, so it may be intolerable anyways. Therefore supplementation is probably necessary. Supplements with high amounts of bioavailable chromium include Life Extension - Optimized Chromium with Chrominex - 500 mcg, and LuckyVitamin.com - GTF Chromium (Glucose Tolerance Factor) - 200 mcg. If the illness is a mild and the chromium requirement is lower, it is more practical to get chromium in combination with other minerals. Supplements with chromium and other minerals include Life Extension - Only Trace Minerals and Natural Vitamin Direct - Chelated Multiminerals Iron Free. Of the two the Life Extension - Only Trace Minerals generally has higher quantities of each element.

Chromium has no toxicity at the treatment dose of 1,000 mcg/day, however 10,000 mcg/day can be toxic. Chromium lowers blood sugar, so if combined with diabetes medication it may cause blood glucose levels to dip too low, therefore diabetics should pay extra care to their glucose levels when first taking chromium. Chromium polynicotinate is niacin bound chromium, so people who suffer side effects from niacin should take chromium picolinate instead.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 7
  • Availability: 4
  • Safety: 4

Links

Vitamin B

The vitamin B complex slows brain atrophy. The typical treatment dose for vitamin B is several times higher than the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Vitamin B supplements have different ingredient proportions. A good supplement should have at least 10 mg of thiamin (vitamin B1), 10 mg of riboflavin (vitamin B2), 40 mg of niacin (vitamin B3), 10 mg of vitamin B6, 400 mcg of folic acid (vitamin B9), and 25 mcg of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). Because of the potential side effects, the dose should be started at a quarter the treatment dose, then increased over three weeks to reach the treatment dose. Food sources of vitamin B are better because they include the entire vitamin B complex, and they are less likely to have adverse effects. Food sources may not have as high a quantity of some subgroups as supplements, but because they include the entire complex, they are effective even in smaller quantities.

The vitamin B complex contains many subgroups, there is no one food which contains a high amount of the entire complex, so to get the high amounts of vitamin B it is necessary to take at least two high vitamin B foods. Foods which have vitamin B include liver, rice polish, brewer's yeat, nutritional yeast, seafood, meat, whole grain cereals, and aloe vera.

Vitamin B supplements include Life Extension - Complete Vitamin B Complex, and Holland and Barrett - Complete B Vitamin B Complex. Most vitamin B complexes have roughly the same amount of ingredients as the Holland and Barrett product. However, the Life Extension product has far higher doses of some vitamins, for example it has 10 times as much thiamin, 7 times as much riboflavin, 8 times as much niacin, 7 times as much vitamin B6, and 40 times as much vitamin B12. Overall, because of the enormous amount of vitamins in the Life Extension complex, by quantity it ends up being cheaper than typical products.

When vitamin B12 takes part in DNA synthesis, it helps to convert the amino acid homocysteine to methionine, therefore lowering homocysteine levels. Researchers investigated the relationship between homocysteine, vitamin B12, and Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis in a group of 271 people between the ages of 65 and 79. Elevated homocysteine is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, and increased vitamin B12 with decreased risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

When the vitamin B complex is used together, the vitamins work at their peak. Researchers from Oxford measured the brain volumes of 168 people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). They gave 85 of them 20 mg/day of vitamin B6, 800 mcg/day of folic acid (vitamin B9), and 0.5 mg/day of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and compared them to the 83 people in the placebo group. The placebo group had an average brain shrinkage (atrophy) of 1.08% per year, while the vitamin B group had an average brain shrinkage of 0.76% per year. Also those with the greatest rate of atrophy had the lowest final cognitive scores.

Some people have trouble absorbing oral vitamin B12, even when taken in large amounts, so after taking vitamin B supplements for a three months people should check their vitamin B12 levels. If the level is less than 500 pg/ml, the patient should take vitamin B12 with a sublingual spray. The body absorbs vitamin B12 from a sublingual spray better than from an oral supplement or even from a sublingual tablet. Vitamin B12 spray products include Mercola.com - Vitamin B12 Spray, and Holland and Barrett - Pure Energy B12 Boost Oral Spray.

There are rare reports of allergic reaction and anaphylaxis from thiamine, including anxiety, respiratory failure, abdominal pain and shock. More than 100 mg of niacin a day can lead to flushed or irritated skin, itching, headaches, liver inflammation, irregular heartbeat, stomach ulcers, loss of vision, gout and death. For hemophiliacs, an overdose of vitamin B5 can lead to more bleeding. More than 500 mg a day of vitamin B6 may lead to numbness in the extremities, difficulty walking, vomiting, tingling, headache and loss of appetite. High doses of riboflavin may result in bright yellow urine, but this is harmless. High dose vitamin B therapy is dangerous for diabetics with kidney disease.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 10
  • Availability: 4
  • Safety: 1

Links

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) and Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR)

Alpha lipoic acid (ALA), or simply lipoic acid, regenerates glutathione and may increase the production of acetylcholine. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), or simply carnitine, prevents the formation of tau protein tangles. The typical dose is 300 mg/day of lipoic acid plus 1,000 mg/day of acetyl-L-carnitine. When combined, lipoic acid and carnitine worked at 100 to 1,000 fold lower concentrations than they each did individually. Because carnitine has a half life of about six hours, it is best to take the combination in divided doses with meals. Lipoic acid comes in two mirror image forms labeled R and S, only the R form is produced and used by life processes, so only R-lipoic acid supplements should be taken. L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine are the most biologically active forms of carnitine, and are the only forms synthesized by our bodies and found in foods. When carnitine is chemically synthesized both the L and D isomers are produced, the D isomer may compete with the L isomer for absorption and transport, thereby increasing the risk of L-carnitine deficiency, so only L isomer supplements should be taken.

Lipoic acid is able to enter the brain and all parts of a nerve cell. Lipoic acid promotes healthy nerve function in part by regenerating the antioxidant glutathione, which is often depleted by oxidative stress from strokes. Lipoic acid may also increase the production of acetylcholine, a nervous system messenger that is deficient in Alzheimer’s disease victims. A study by the Department of Medical Rehabilitation and Geriatrics in Hannover found that lipoic acid slowed the progression of Alzheimer's disease compared to controls.

Diseases, medications, and aging deplete the body’s natural production of carnitine and its conversion to acetyl-L-carnitine. People with Alzheimer's disease have roughly a 30% lower level of ALCAR transferase activity than people without. A study found that supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine protected mice against the formation of tau protein tangles. A Russian study found that 3 g/day of acetyl-L-carnitine for 4 months benefited patients with early stage Alzheimer’s disease, compared to controls. This dose is higher than the typical carnitine dose, however, because lipoic acid and carnitine work together well, the typical carnitine dose in combination with lipoic acid may be enough to benefit Alzheimer patients.

Accumulated damage to mitochondrial DNA leads to increased free radical stress, chronic disease, and to lowered cellular energy production. Lipoic acid induces mitochondrial biogenesis, a process that rejuvenates and replaces damaged mitochondria. L-carnitine is acetylated into acetyl-L-carnitine in the brain, liver, and kidney. Carnitine is required for fatty acid oxidation; improved fatty acid oxidation preserves muscle glycogen and improves ATP production, which leads to improved exercise performance. Supplemental carnitine increases long chain fatty acid oxidation even in healthy individuals without carnitine deficiency.

Dietary lipoic acid is bound to lysine, a bond which human digestive enzymes can not break, so humans can only absorb significant amounts of lipoic acid from supplements. Carnitine's name is derived from the fact that it was first isolated from meat (carnus) in 1905. Around 69% of carnitine from food is absorbed, compared to 17% from oral supplements. Beef has about 96 mg of carnitine per 100 g, and pork has about 26 mg of carnitine per 100 g. Other foods have smaller amounts of carnitine, too small to be a significant contribution even though carnitine from food is well absorbed. Humans also synthesize carnitine from lysine and methionine, but the formation rate can be too slow to meet demand. Products with R-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine include Life Extension - Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ, Bestvite - Acetyl L-Carnitine 500 mg and R-Alpha Lipoic Acid 150 mg, and Robert Jordan Nutraceutricals - Acetyl-L-Carnitine plus Alpha Lipoic Acid.

If you can not tolerate carnitine, supplements which have only R-lipoic acid include Life Extension - Super R-Lipoic Acid, and Wellness Resources - R-Alpha Lipoic Acid. If you can not tolerate lipoic acid, supplements which have only L-carnitine include Life Extension - Optimized Carnitine with Glycocarn, Wellness Resources - Acetyl-L-Carnitine, IWantMyVitamins.com - TwinLab Carni Fuel L-Carnitine Liquid Concentrate, and DCNutrition.com - L-Carnitine Capsules and Powder (Heart Tonic).

Adverse effects of lipoic acid are mild and include a skin rash. Lipoic acid lowers blood sugar, so if combined with diabetes medication it may cause blood glucose levels to dip too low, therefore diabetics should pay extra care to their glucose levels when first taking lipoic acid. Lipoic acid should also not be taken if you are currently suffering from, a thiamine deficiency. Carnitine supplementation may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Taking more than 3 g/day of carnitine may cause a fishy body odor. Acetyl-L-carnitine has been reported to increase agitation in some Alzheimer's disease patients and to increase seizure frequency and/or severity in some individuals with seizure disorders. Carnitine may reduce the absorption of thyroid hormone, making thyroid hormone replacement less effective. Rare side effects include increased appetite, and rash. There are also reports of more vivid dreams.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 9
  • Availability: 2
  • Safety: 3

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Chelation

Chelation removes toxic metals, and therefore reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Since chelation effects are permanent it is perfect for prevention. The word chelate means pincer like claw. In medicine this word indicates the action of chemically grabbing metals and removing them. Chelation can be done orally or intravenously. Intravenous chelation is faster, but it can only be done in a clinic and there are many potential intravenous therapy adverse effects, therefore it should only be done in cases of acute metal poisoning. For all other illnesses, chelation should be done orally.

Toxic metals can combine with beta amyloid protein to form neurofibrillary tangles, which combine and create plaques. Toxic metals include aluminum, mercury, lead, and cadmium. Chelation removes metals, and therefore reduces the risk and severity of Alzheimer's disease.

Because chelating chemicals remove all metals, including essential metals, safe chelation requires that the essential metals be replenished throughout the therapy. A good chelating system will provide the patient essential metals in the morning, and chelating chemicals just before sleep. Different foods and chemicals have different affinities for different metals, for example cilantro is good at removing mercury and EDTA is good at removing lead, also some chelators require other chemicals to chelate toxic metals, so to remove all the toxic metals the chelating system should have many chelators or helper chemicals, such as alpha lipoic acid (ALA), cilantro, chlorella, coenzyme Q10, EDTA, garlic, L-Cysteine, magnesium, methionine, methysulfonylmethane (MSM) N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC), selenium, sodium alginate, taurine, vitamin B12, and vitamin C. To add to the metal supplementation in the morning, while on chelation therapy the patient should eat many foods which have a high ratio of minerals to calories, such as root vegetables. The removed metals will leave through the urine, stool, sweat, or hair. To help this along, drink lots of water, eat lots of fiber, and sweat more with exercise and/or a sauna.

Extreme Health USA has two chelation systems, the vegetarian Heavy Metal Detox Supplement and with EDTA, the Heart Plus Detox Supplement. They both include a morning supplement to provide metals in the morning.

Science Formulas has two chelation products, the caplet bulk jar, Oral Chelation Caplet Formula and the liquid bottle, Oral Chelation Liquid Formula. The full treatment requires either the caplet bulk jar or three liquid bottles. Their morning supplement, Multi Chelation Support Formula, is sold separately.

There are many foods and chemicals which treat Alzheimer's disease safely, but once the patient stops taking them, most of the effects stop. Chelation has the advantage that once the metals are removed, they're gone forever, making chelation one of the best preventation measures, because taking it once gives lifetime arthritis protection. It is still a good idea to take mild chelation therapy every few years because in that time the body will get more toxic metals, and also no single round of chelation therapy removes all the toxic metals.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 7
  • Availability: 3
  • Safety: 3

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Phosphatidylserine (PS)

Phosphatidylserine (PS) improves cognitive function by raising acetylcholine levels. The typical treatment dose in Alzheimer's disease studies is 300 mg/day.

Cholinergic hypofunction accounts for part of the cognitive deficits found in Alzheimer's disease. Phosphatidylserine increases the availability of endogenous choline for acetylcholine synthesis. In 51 patients with Alzheimer's disease, a 12 week treatment with 300 mg/day of phosphatidylserine improved cognitive function in the treated group, compared to placebo. Differences were more dramatic among patients with milder cognitive impairment, suggesting that phosphatidylserine is most useful in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

Organ meats, such as liver and kidneys, contain high levels of phosphatidylserine, chicken hearts have 414 mg per 100 g serving, and pig kidneys have 218 mg per 100 g serving. Soybeans and white beans each contain about 100 mg per 100 g serving. Cow brains have extremenly high levels of phosphatidylserine, however there is a risk of contracting mad cow disease from eating cow brains. Phosphatidylserine supplements include Life Extension - PS (Phosphatidylserine) - 100 mg, and BodyBuilding.com - Natural Factors: PS PhosphatidylSerine - 100 mg.

At normal dosing levels side effects are rare, typically gastrointestinal complaints, such as nausea, stomach upset and diarrhea. Do not take phosphatidylserine if you are pregnant, nursing or have kidney or liver disease because no studies exist to prove its safety in these conditions. PS is known to enhance the effect of heparin, a blood thinner. Using PS and blood thinners, such as aspirin, coumadin or warfarin, could interfere with blood clotting enough to cause problems.

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  • Effectiveness: 7
  • Availability: 3
  • Safety: 3

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Choline

People who consume large amounts of choline have a lower risk of dementia. Men should consume at least 550 mg/day of choline, and women should consume at least 425 mg/day of choline. A choline rich diet may provide that, the typical supplementation dose of around 900 mg/day will certainly provide sufficient choline.

People who consume a choline rich diet are less likely to exhibit signs of dementia compared to people consuming a choline poor diet, and on average have better visual memory, verbal memory, and cognitive performance. For patients who already have Alzheimer's disease, choline helps those who have the e4 variant of the APOE gene, and those who are in the early stages of the disease.

Foods rich in choline include eggs, shrimp, collard greens, swiss chard, cauliflower, spinach and asparagus. Choline supplements include Life Extension - Choline Chloride Liquid, Bio-Alternatives - Choline Bitartrate Powder, and PureBulk.com - Choline Bitartrate Powder.

Choline has potential adverse effects, including increased body temperature, excessive sweating, increased salivation, nausea, upset stomach, diarrhea, decreased appetite, dizziness, hypotension and abnormal electrocardiogram results.

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  • Effectiveness: 4
  • Availability: 4
  • Safety: 4

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Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), in the form of ubiquinol, decreases the area and number of amyloid beta plaques. The typical dose is 50 to 100 mg/day, the higher dose of 100 mg/day is probably more effective. If there is also a cardiovascular problem, and there are no adverse effects from the CoQ10, the dose should be increased to 300 mg/day. CoQ10 is fat soluble and should be taken with fat, like peanut butter or olive oil, for absorption. It should be taken in the form of soft gel capsules or gel form, rather than dry capsules or tablets.

There are two forms of CoQ10. Ubiquinone is the oxidized form of CoQ10, and it has been sold since around 1990. Ubiquinol is the reduced form of CoQ10, sold since 2006. The body requires both forms of CoQ10, and it converts one form to the other as needed. Within a few hours of consuming one form of CoQ10, the body will convert part of it to the other form. Ubiquinone is used by the mitochondria to make energy. Ubiquinol protects mitochondria from free radical damage. Ubiquinol is better absorbed by the body, however, it costs more than ubiquinone.

A mouse study lead by M. Dumont found that treatment with CoQ10 decreases the area and number of plaques in the hippocampus and in the overlying cortex, brain Abeta42 levels, and amyloid beta protein precursor beta-carboxyterminal levels. Also mice treated with CoQ10 showed cognitive improvement in water maze tests. Amyloid beta peptides impair mitochondrial function and increase oxidative stress, poisoning the nervous system. Researchers at the University of Coimbra found that rats treated with CoQ10 were more resistant to the neurotoxic effects of amyloid beta peptides than untreated rats.

Statin drugs inhibit the natural biosynthesis of CoQ10, leading to statin cardiomyopathy. Therefore anyone taking statin drugs must supplement with CoQ10, if they are not already, to prevent a major adverse effect of statin drugs.

CoQ10 is produced by all cells of the body. It is believed that niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C and folate help the body convert tyrosine to CoQ10. CoQ10 is essential to the metabolism of fat and energy. CoQ10 levels decline with age, and the elderly often require supplementation. Heart tissue biopsies in patients with cardiovascular diseases show a CoQ10 deficiency in around 62% of cases.

There are small amounts of CoQ10 in food, notably seafood, but not enough to treat illnesses; high levels of CoQ10 can only be obtained from supplements. Ubiquinol products include Life Extension - Super Ubiquinol CoQ10 - 100 mg, Rejuvenation Science - Ubiquinol - CoQ10 - 100 mg, and Vitamins for Life - Natures Aid Ubiquinol - 50 mg.

In an Italian study with a maximum dose of 150 mg/day, 1.3% of subjects had side effects, mainly mild gastrointestinal upset. Less common side effects included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia. In rare cases allergic rash and headaches have occurred. CoQ10’s antiplatelet effect may increase the risk of bleeding; however, on the other hand its vitamin K like action may oppose anticoagulant effects.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 6
  • Availability: 2
  • Safety: 4

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Meditation

Meditation improves cognition and memory in patients with dementia. People who took an eight week mindfulness meditation program had an increase in the grey matter density of the hippocampus, a part of the brain that affects memory and learning. A 2009 study published in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine Communication showed that subjects practicing Kirtan Kriya (KK) meditation were able to activate the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG), which diminishes in activity when a person gets Alzheimer’s disease. There are no risks in the use of meditation.

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  • Effectiveness: 2
  • Availability: 5
  • Safety: 5

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Garlic

Garlic improves circulation, which in turn ameliorated cognitive decline. The typical treatment dose is at least three cloves of crushed garlic per day.

Garlic lowers high blood pressure, improves circulation, prevents the buildup of plaques, and reduces total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL), the bad cholesterol. Improved circulation is a key factor in preventing cognitive decline, memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease. An in vitro study lead by Gupta found garlic extract inhibited Abeta fibril formation and fresh garlic juice defibrillated Abeta preformed fibrils. Fibrillar Abeta is the principal component of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's patients.

Aged garlic extract (AGE) is aged for up to twenty months. Over this time period the harsh and irritating compounds in garlic beak down into stable and safe sulfur compounds. Aged garlic extract contains primarily water-soluble sulfur compounds as well as a smaller amount of oil-soluble sulfur compounds.

Excessive consumption of garlic can lead to garlic odor on breath and skin, occasional allergic reactions, occasional increase in bronchial asthma and contact dermatitis, a chance of stomach disorders and diarrhea, and a decrease in serum protein and calcium levels. Garlic thins blood, so if you are taking large amounts of garlic you should not take blood thinners such as aspirin, coumadin or warfarin. Aged garlic extract does not lead to as much odor, but it is more expensive than eating garlic directly.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 3
  • Availability: 5
  • Safety: 3

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Milk Thistle

Milk thistle reduces the formation of beta amyloid plaques in mice. The active ingredient in milk thistle is silymarin. The typical dose is roughly 400 mg/day of milk thistle extract, standardized to 80% silymarin, divided equally between meals.

Mice given milk thistle had fewer beta amyloid plaques. Animals with Alzheimer's are more nervous than healthy animals and keep on checking out their surroundings, probably because they do not remember earlier forays around the cage. The mice given milk thistle checked out of their cage less often. An in vitro study found that silymarin suppressed amyloid beta-protein fibril formation and neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Another study found that silymarin protected glial cells against peroxide induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, ATP depletion, and cell damage.

Milk thistle products include Life Extension - Certified European Milk Thistle - 750 mg, and Holland and Barrett - Milk Thistle Capsules - 175mg. A milk thistle product combining a phospholipid with silybin which claims to increase bioavailabilty by a factor of ten is LiverSupport.com - Maximum Milk Thistle - 240 mg.

Milk thistle can be used safely and effectively by a wide range of people, including pregnant and nursing women. Occasionally there is a mild and temporary laxative effect.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 3
  • Availability: 3
  • Safety: 5

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Honey and Cinnanmon

Raw honey with cinnamon reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease, the combination is from Ayurvedic medicine. The typical dose is one tablespoon of honey with half a teaspoon of cinnamon. Because cinnamon has possible adverse effects, it is best to start with a quarter teaspoon of cinnamon, and if there are no adverse effects, increase the dose to half a teaspoon of cinnamon. You must only take true Ceylon cinnamon, not Cassia cinnamon which is an herb whose powder looks like Ceylon cinnamon powder and can be found on some store shelves labeled as cinnamon. Ceylon cinnamon sticks are tan brown, fragile, composed of thin and paper-like textured bark that forms multiple layers when rolled up. Cassia cinnamon sticks are reddish dark brown, tough, composed of uneven thick bark that forms only a few layers when rolled up. For the honey use pure, raw unpasteurized honey because heating destroys some of the medicinal compounds. Local raw honey is excellent, a good packaged honey is manuka honey.

Mice given the CEppt compound from cinnamon had a slower progression of Alzheimer's disease. The same compound was found to break up amyloid protein clusters in test tube experiments. The people of Ikaria, who eat a lot of Ikarian honey, typically starting their day with a spoonful of honey, have a quarter of the rate of dementia that Americans do. Glycogen fuels the brain; if the brain runs out of glycogen, cortisol is released, which triggers metabolic stress. Metabolic stress leads to many problems, including Alzheimer's disease. Honey facilitates the production of liver glycogen, therefore reducing metabolic stress and the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

Honey has sugars, acids and enzymes, most of the medicinal benefits are from the enzymes, and a bit from the acids. The enzymes include catalase, diastase, glucose oxidase, inhibine, invertase, katalase, and phosphatase. The main medicinal acid is proline. Many of the enzymes, like diastase and invertase, are sensitive to heat and light which is why honey should never be heated above 43 Celcius (110 Farenheit). The medicinal ingredients in cinnamon include cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, cinnamyl alcohol, and methylhydroxychalcone polymer (MHCP).

Honey is safe at the typical dose, however cinnamon has possible adverse effects at even half a teaspoon. People with any prior condition of the digestive system such as an ulcer or irritable bowel syndrome should be careful when eating cinnamon, more than half a teaspoon may cause the lining of the stomach to become irritated. Doses of more than half a teaspoon may increase heart rate, which is dangerous for those with heart conditions, and may damage kidneys. Cinnamon lowers blood sugar, so if combined with diabetes medication it may cause blood glucose levels to dip too low, therefore diabetics should pay extra care to their glucose levels when first taking cinnamon. Cinnamon thins the blood, so it should not be taken in any situation where a lot of bleeding may occur, like before surgery, or during heavy menstruation. Some traditional practitioners will give a mother cinnamon in order to induce contractions, so pregnant women may want to avoid cinnamon. Overall, cinnamon has many possible side effects, so if you have any problem with cinnamon, do not take cinnamon. The honey alone still helps with diabetes, although to a much lesser extent than honey and cinnamon.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 4
  • Availability: 4
  • Safety: 2

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Bromelain

Bromelain reduces inflammation and it may degrade beta-amyloid pigmentation. A dose of 50 mg/day helps a bit, the protective effect increases with dosage and the best results occur when bromelain is given in doses above 500 mg/day. Bromelain is relatively nontoxic, and doses of up to 2,000 mg/day have been used. Most commercial products contain 500 mg of bromelain, manufacturers suggest a dosage regimen of 500 to 1,000 mg daily. Some doctors recommend taking half of the bromelain away from meals if it's being used therapeutically. This frees up the digestive enzymes from digesting foods to perform other healthy functions.

Chronic inflammation may be involved in the development of major depression and could predispose depressed patients to neurodegeneration. Chronic low grade inflammation changes brain structure in a way similar to that seen in dementias. Neuronal loss, for example, is a common feature of major depression and dementia. Proteolytic enzymes such as bromelain digest and deactivate inflammatory compounds that block normal healing, therefore they might help prevent neudegerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Also, after oral ingestion bromelain is complexed with macroglobulin. This complex may degrade beta-amyloid pigmentation, thereby treating Alzheimer's Disease.

Bromelain is usually extracted from pineapple stems and sometimes from the fruit. People with sensitivity to pineapple, may be sensitive to bromelain. People who are allergic to bee sting may have a similar reaction to bromelain. Bromelain acts as a blood thinner and little is known about how bromelain interacts with blood-thinning drugs, people should avoid combining such drugs with bromelain in order to reduce the theoretical risk of excessive bleeding. Bromelain may also increase the heart rate.

Bromelain is just one of several proteolytic enzymes used to treat Alzheimer's disease. The full proteolytic enzyme treatment requires pancreatin, serrapeptase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain and bromelain, as described in the proteolytic enzymes section, and is more powerful and expensive than bromelain alone.

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  • Effectiveness: 2
  • Availability: 4
  • Safety: 3

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Proteolytic Enzymes

Proteolytic enzymes reduce inflammation and dissolve amyloid plaque. A typical dosage for chronic illness is on the label. The Life Extension - Zywobin-Forte dosage is 4 capsules/day. The ModernHerbalist.com - Wobenzym-N dosage is 6 capsules/day. The Baseline Nutritionals - Phi-Zymes dosage is 3 capsules/day. For full effect, the proteolytic enzymes must contain pancreatin, serrapeptase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain and bromelain. No single proteolytic enzyme product has all of those types of enzymes, but each of the products just mentioned have most of them. Some doctors recommend taking half of the proteolytic enzymes away from meals if it's being used therapeutically. This frees up the enzymes from digesting foods to perform other healthy functions.

Chronic inflammation may be involved in the development of major depression and could predispose depressed patients to neurodegeneration. Chronic low grade inflammation changes brain structure in a way similar to that seen in dementias. Neuronal loss, for example, is a common feature of major depression and dementia. Proteolytic enzymes such as bromelain digest and deactivate inflammatory compounds that block normal healing, therefore they might help prevent neudegerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Also, after oral ingestion bromelain is complexed with macroglobulin. This complex may degrade beta-amyloid pigmentation, thereby treating Alzheimer's Disease. Serrapeptase, from bacteria in the silkworm moth digestive system, can dissolve a number of different proteins in the human body, including amyloid plaque. Nattokinase enzyme, from fermented soy, has the ability to dissolve amyloid fibrils, which build up as plaque in the brain.

Adverse effects with high doses of porcine-based pancreatic enzyme therapy are intestinal gas, occasional bloating, and occasional indigestion. People with sensitivity to pineapple, may be sensitive to bromelain. People who are allergic to bee sting may have a similar reaction to bromelain.

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  • Effectiveness: 3
  • Availability: 2
  • Safety: 3

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Astragalus

Astragalus protects neurons and reduces damage from ischemia. The most active class of compounds in astragalus are the astragalosides. The typical dose for raw astragalus root is 15 g/day brewed as tea or added to food, for granulated or finely chopped or ground astragalus, the dose is 2 heaping teaspoons per day, for 10:1 extract, the dose is one rounded teaspoon per day. For a standardized astragalus extract, the dose is around 13 mg of astragalosides per day. For pure astragaloside IV, the dose is around 40 mg/day.

Astragalus provides general neuroprotection and reduces damage from ischemia and reperfusion. Astragalus also treats Alzheimer's disease indirectly by reducing cardiovascular risk factors, because any size stroke adds to the risk of dementia and probably hastens the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Astragaloside IV possesses an aortic relaxant effect, dilating and widening arteries. Additionally, through its antioxidant effects astragaloside IV preserves acetylcholine, a relaxant.

Astragalus activates the production of telomerase in human cells. Telomerase is an enzyme that prevents the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes from being eroded away, leading to cell death. Ordinarily, the number of times a cell can divide is limited to a certain number called the Hayflick limit, due to this telomere erosion. When enough telomerase is added to cells, it can enable the replacement of eroded telomeres so the cells can divide without limit. The telomerase activated by astragalus is only sufficient to lengthen critically short telomeres, it does not lengthen intermediate length telomeres; however, even this limited elongation is enough to have beneficial effects.

Astragalus products which have significant amounts of astragalosides include Finlandia - New Roots Ageless Telomeres - 13.5 mg, Vitamart.ca - New Roots Ageless Telomeres - 13.5 mg, Terraternal - Astragaloside IV - 40 mg, and Generic-TA-65 - Astragaloside IV - 40mg. While the astragalosides are the most active class of compounds in astragalus, some of the other compounds in astragalus are also useful, so the New Roots Ageless Telomeres product, which has 450 mg astragalus root per capsule with 3% astragalosides, for a total of 13.5 mg of astragalosides, may have a similar utility to the pure Astragaloside IV products, even though it has less astragalosides.

There is speculation that astragalus should be used two weeks on and two weeks off in order to avoid giving cancer cells a boost, although there is no evidence that astragalus promotes cancer, according to the Patton protocol; also some people alternate astragalus consumption because astragalus may interfere with other supplements. However, there is no experimental evidence that it is necessary or even useful to alternate consumption. An allergic reaction rarely occurs when taking astragalus, however; individuals who have allergies to other legumes are more at risk of developing an allergy to astragalus. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include rashes, hives with itching, swelling of the face, tongue or throat, and difficulty breathing. Additional adverse effects include hypotension (low blood pressure), and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Possible gastrointestinal adverse effects include nausea, bloating and upset stomach, gas, diarrhea, difficulty swallowing, passage of bloody or black stools or constipation. Astragalus may interfere with blood clotting; therefore patients having surgery, and those taking blood thinners, like aspirin, coumadin or warfarin, should not take astragalus.

Rating

  • Effectiveness: 3
  • Availability: 1
  • Safety: 2

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Copper

Vitamin C

L-Lysine

Magnesium

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)

Pomegranate

Unrated Treatment

Disclaimer

The information presented is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other health care professional. You should consult with a health care professional before starting any diet, exercise or supplementation program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem.

-EFT

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