Agriculture and Pastoralism

  • Statement of evidence - agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies. Use this on an essay because it is good evidence. Pastoralism is nomadic herding, so is nomadic. Agriculture is plants, pastoralism would be to domesticating animals. It is important to remember pastoralism.
  • Statement of evidence - Pastoralism developed at various sites in grasslands of Afro-Eurasia.
  • Pastoralism starts in Africa and spreads to the middle east
  • Oases theory of domestication
    • How did we first hear?
    • In north africa, it happened around these oases where the water was because the humans and the animals boYh needed it.
    • We started to settle near these oases and the animals came to use because they needed the water.
    • Evidence - Different crops of animals were domesticated in the various core regions, depending on available local flora and fauna (make sure you know what these two words mean).
  • The grains come up in the middle of Mesopotamia.
  • Evidence (important) - Agricultural communities had to work cooperatively to clear land and create water control systems needed for crop production.
    • You needed communities for work together
    • Civilizations arise around river valleys because the communities were there and that required leaders, etc.
    • It is a chicken and the egg argument
  • Evidence - Agricultural practices drastically impacted environmental diversity
  • Evidence - Pastoralist affected the environment by grazing large numbers of animals on fragile grasslands, leading to erosion when overgrazed.
    • Grasses hold the soil in place
    • Overgrazing enables the soil to blow away
    • This then exposes the unfertile dirt underneath the soil and so that is not a good thing
  • Evidence - Pastoralism and agriculture lead to more reliable and abundant food supplies which helped to feed the increased population

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